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Philosophy Review.docx

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Philosophy Exam Review PHI1101Unit 1 Logic the basicsAreas of philosophyMoral and political What is happiness justiceEpistemology Are there limits to knowledge Is objective knowledge possibleMetaphysics Material vs Immaterial Is there free willThe method of philosophy is reasoned argumentTwo Laws of Logic1 The Law of NonContradictionIt is impossible for a proposition and its negation to be true at the same time2 The Law of the Excluded Middle Law of BivalenceEvery proposition must be either true or false there is no middle between truth and falsityIf a proposition is true then its negation must be false and vice versaBasic Concepts and their Principles1Statements True or False2Sets Consistent or Inconsistent3Arguments Logically Strong or Logically Weak Sound or Unsound1 StatementsA sentence used to make a claimAlso referred to as assertions or propositionsEither true or falseCommands questions and wishes cannot be statements because they are incapable of being either true or falseExamples Socrates is a man True Cats smell like toast False2 Sets2 or more statements can be combined into groups called setsEither consistent or inconsistentA set is consistent if it is possible for all of the statements in that set to be true at the same time if the statements do not contradict each otherTwo false statements can be consistentExamples Socrates is a man Socrates is mortal Consistent Cats smell like toast Cats dont exist InconsistentInferenceA logical relationship where one thought provides support justifies or makes it reasonable to believe that another though is trueIndicators since thus implies because consequentlyExample Socrates is a man Consequently Socrates is mortal3 ArgumentsWhen a set implies an inference it becomes an argumentThe premises must support justify or make it reasonable to believe that the conclusion is trueArguments can be logically strong or logically weakAn argument is logically strong if the premises if true support or make it reasonable to believe the conclusion is trueThis means that the premises do not actually have to be true for an argument to be logically strongExamples Socrates is a manAll men are mortal Therefore Socrates is mortal All men are immortalLassie is a man Therefore Lassie is immortalArguments can also be sound or unsoundAn argument is logically sound if it is logically strong and it has true premisesDeductive and Inductive ArgumentsDeductive Arguments the truth of the premises guarantees the truth of the conclusionThese arguments constitute strict proofInductive Arguments the truth of the premises makes the truth of the conclusion probableThese arguments are a matter of degreeSome Other Forms of ArgumentsCounterfactual Arguments we know or assume one of the premises is false contrary to the factsReductio ad Absurdum reduce to absurdity absurdity contradiction oAssume poDerive a contradiction qqoConclusion p is falseoConclusion p is trueoExample Socrates is an Olympian GodOlympian Gods are immortalSocrates died in 399 BC Therefore Socrates is immortal and mortal contradiction Therefore Socrates is an Olympian God is false by Reductio ad Absurdum and Socrates is not an Olympian God is trueEnthymeme an argument in which the conclusion or one of the premises has been left unstatedSorites a connected series of arguments in which the conclusion of one argument also serves as a premise in another argumentUnit 2 Definitions
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