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PHI 1101.docx

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PHI 1101 HCh 1Claimcan be true or false positive or negative premise or conclusionArgumentset of claims one of which conclusion is meant to be supported by the others premises ArgumentpremisesconclusionAny length or subject matterDispute is not an argument arguments may be offered during a disputeBad arguments are still argumentsan argument is a matter of intentionInferencemove from premises to conclusion Statements imply people inferConclusion indicatorsTherefore Consequently It follows that Hence We may conclude This entails that Here are some of the reasons why SoPremise indicatorsSince For Seeing as Because For the reason that As implied by On account of the factthese words indicate the flow of logic and the presence of an argument inference indicatorsImplicitclaim meant to be understood a certain way listener fills in the blanks Questions commands exclamations and exhortations are implicitEnthymemesarguments including implicit premises or conclusionsComplex arguments are seen as two separate arguments Having an intermediate conclusionsIntermediate conclusionconclusions reused as premises in a flow of logicFinal conclusionfinal pointA simple argument has only and final conclusionCh2Standard formclear way to exhibit how the sentences are related to one anotherSimple argument Listing the premises one on top of the other Drawing a line Stating the conclusionComplex argument List the premises above conclusion they support main argument goes last Number the sentence in their new order After the conclusions number the premises that support itidentify inference indicatorsidentify independent and dependent premisesreformulate vague premisesdiscard noiseExplanations1 premiseconditionals disjunctives and unless1 premise eachDiagrams V diagramarrows lead directly from premise to the supported conclusion independent premisesT diagramlinks dependent premises together and then to the conclusion they supportCh3Valid Argumentno possible way for the premises to be true and the conclusion false Does not mean trueDeductive Argumentspremises are meant to guarantee the conclusionValid if Premise ConclusionFFFTTT this is a sound argumentThese arguments will remain valid even if other premises are addedValidity is checked through thought experiments to determine any possible circumstance where the premises are true but the conclusion false Mainly if the premises cannot guarantee the conclusionNondeductive Argumentspremises confer a high degree of probability on the conclusionSuccessful probable conclusion vs Unsuccessful when the premises offer little to no support
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