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A compilation of Mark Brown's PHI 1101 notes from start to finish

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University of Ottawa
Mark Brown

PHI 1101 1132012 35300 PM Bob is in a bar looking at Susan who is looking at Pablo Bob is married Pablo is not Is a married person looking at an unmarried person y A Yes y B No y C Cannot be DeterminedBob Susan Pablo MarriedUnmarried Married UnmarriedCritical Thinking The systematic evaluation or formulation of beliefs or statements by rational standards Used to devise systematic beliefs and devise new ones The Basic Toolbox of Critical Thinking y Statement A claim that something is or is not the case Can serve as premises or conclusions o The water looks polluted o Maurice smells bad o Taxes are too high o The earth is flat y Premise A statement that is intended to support another statement y Conclusion A statement that premises are used to support Meant to be supported by reasons in the argument y Argument A group of statements in which some of them specifically the premises are intended to support another one of them ie the conclusionSo in critical thinking terms the word argument doesnt just mean a debate a dispute or a contradictionThe environment of critical thinking 1 Problems with how we think y Focused on self preservation o self interested thinking y Examples of self interested thinking o Im against gun control because Im a hunter o I think the government should freeze tuition because Im a student and I dont want to pay more o Used to save face o Based solely on the fact that the issue is about our interests y Other People y Group Thinking o Peer Pressure to do or believe the things the group does o Stereotyping involves drawing conclusions about people without insufficient reasons based on their membership in a group PAMELA Wednesday 9301030 ARTS 219 ROB Friday 130230 ARTS 218Lecture 1 1132012 35300 PM 2 Problems with what we think y Part of the worldview of critical thinking like science is the idea that The world is publicly understandable o Examples224Whales are mammalsOttawa is the capital of Canada y Critical thinking rejects relativism y Subjective relativism Truth depends solely on what someone believes truth to be y Social Cultural Relativism Truth is relative to groups cultures or societies o Doesnt allow us to critique our society An example of a premise and a conclusion in action y Premise is a reason intended to support and conclusion o I got sick when I ate there Conclusion Therefore you should avoid that restaurant An Inference is the jump between a premise and a conclusion How do we recognize arguments y Look for a conclusion and look for the supporting premises y Look for inference indicators y There are two types of inference indicators Premise Indicators and Conclusion Indicators Premise indicators are followed by a premise y Examples of premise indicator words o Because since in view of etc Conclusion Indicators are followed by a conclusion y Examples of conclusion indicator words o Therefore thus so consequently ergo hence etc o the quiz is tomorrow so we should study o I got sick last time therefore we shouldnt go back there If something is left out then the receiver listener reader of the argument needs to fillintheblanks y More interpretation needed by the listener or assessor Arguments that have implicit or hidden premises or conclusions are known as enthymemes
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