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Full Exam ReviewPlato1 QUESTIONinfluenced by Socratescontinues with the philosophies of Socratesmerely expands and fine tunesaccording the Plato the state of Athens is an unjust state didnt have good laws nor did it have the right people charge to run state ie the state was not correctly orderedPlato writes The Republica utopian blueprint for a just or ideal societynow we revisit metaphysics which touches on the question what is nature of realityfor Plato within metaphysics there exists two realities known as the divided linethis consists of the world of forms which is the intelligible world and a world of sense experience which is visual platos divided lineworld of forms intelligible worldthe more important realityis not subject to changea reality of forms which are objects of thought like the idea of a circle and are not in space and timethese forms are eternal the world of sense experience visible worldreality of physical objects in space and timeobjects of the sensesin flux always changing experiencing growth and decaythis is an impoverished and imperfect worldalso known as the world of shadows as described in his allegory of the cave some forms are more important than othersex justice and the form of the goodin Platos Republic the main concern is justice or why be goodon one hand justice relates to the correct order of society but also relates to the quality within a person who has a well ordered soul according to Plato there exists two realitiesthe world of sense experiencewhich is transitory illusorythe world of formswhich exists beyond this the eternal reality of unchallengeable ideasthere is a hierarchy of formsjustice beauty and most importantly the form of the goodPlato says that the fascination of this form of the good will make us moral and will illuminate all other formsthis is what we are trying to access thisthe form of the good will help us be moral individualswe dont see forms yet we understand them mentallyyou should know how we reach the form of the good google itPlatos allegory of the cave as it relates to the divided linedivided line interpretation were ignorant within knowledge see images only see shadows think these are realknowledge of physical things then prisoner can see thing in the light of daycontemplate science and philosophyPlato tries to tell others about the form of the good but realizes how hard this isjust like the allegory of the cave people will often try to kill them should know this in greater detail tooglauconstates 3 categories of what makes someone good in The Republicsays if we ask the majority of people where justice falls most would place it in category 3ie justice is a burden but we accept it for its consequences or results 1things which are good for their own sake and not their consequences intrinsic value IV valuable in and of itself sunset2things which we value for their own sake and for their consequences intrinsicinstrumental value combo health 3those burdensome things that we value only for their consequences instrumental value ex chalkmyth the ring of gygesglaucon cites this myth in making the argument that the third category is where justice residesthe myth pretty much goes like thisShepard tends to flock earthquake happens goes to see whats up sees earth cracked sees somethingbronze horse hollow stomach corpse golden ring on finger later that evening puts ring on turns one way he goes invisible visible now kings messenger seduces queen kill king takes overpoint of the storyif we could do something and knew we wouldnt get caught we would do a bunch of bad stuffthis is what Glaucon argues ie if left unchecked human nature dictates we are cruel and selfish this is similar to HobbesPlatos tripartite soulreason spirit appetitethis consists of 3 partsreasonjob is to tell us what to think thoughtspiritrelates to honourable passions appetite relates to basic desires eat drink sex the soul is more important than the body it belongs to the world of formsa moral person had virtues of wisdom courage moderation and justice reason wisdomposses wisdom when reason does job of governing individual wellspiritcouragehaving the right passion about the right thingsappetite moderationwhen the appetite part of the soul demonstrates selfrestraint justice occurs when the three different parts of the soul act together harmoniously reason rules spirit carries out commands of reason appetite remains obedient to the other two shows selfrestraintAristotle 1 QUESTIONhow is Aristotle different from PlatoRaphaels fresco the school of Athens features both aristotle and platoplato on the left aristotle on the right plato is pointing up towards sky while aristotle points in frontplatos point upwards refers to his vision of the world of forms while aristotles forward reach represents that his concern is with the present world the world of the here and nowcrucial differenceAristotle parts ways with Plato at some pointdoesnt agree that the world of forms exists aristotles main criticism is that platos theory of the world of forms cannot account for changechangebecoming is very important to aristotlearistotle is concerned with the science of biologywas one of first
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