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PHI1104FINAL REVIEW SECTION ONE QUOTATIONS 110Any philosopher discussed in any lectureSECTION TWO SHORT ANSWERS 56Mediation 1what can be called in by doubt arguments that work and dont work what can you doubt The dream argument can you doubt Why does Descartes think it is persuasiveFOUR ARGUMENTSMany of Descartes received opinions are false and from these false opinions he had built other false opinions forcing him to realize that he had to raze everything to the ground and begin again from original foundations This raises the question about how to go about systematically evaluating his thought It is too much to ask him to show that all his opinions are false so he sets a standard to withhold assent from or doubt every opinion that is not clear and distinct Therefore he needs to undermine his previous foundationsSo Descartes investigates the foundations in order to see if there is a reason to doubt his previous convictions We can doubt physics astronomy and medicine and other sciences based on corporeality This includes pure mathematics Descartes does dream and though it is possible to distinguish between dreams and waking life sometimes it is not Recall that the standard of certainty is clarity and distinctness so it is reasonable to doubt the senses and corporeal things in general due to the dream argument Argument 1 is he mad Descartes states that it is possible that he could be mad but he decides that this is not the case Claiming he is mad would disqualify him from being able to give a reasonable account of doubtArgument 2 the dream argumentArgument 3 fate or chance argument Descartes replies that the absence of a perfect being that has created everything makes it even more likely that wee are imperfect and subject to doubt Or the problem with the fate or chance argument doesnt give us a reason to doubt mathematics Argument 4 the evil genius So to doubt the senses mathematics Gods goodness and everything else Descartes proposes that we replace God with an evil demon set on deceiving him This is not madness as Descartes shows that nothing that he once believed that he cannot doubt through valid and considered reasons
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