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PHI 1104A.docx

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University of Ottawa

PHI1104 A Great PhilosophersInstructor Paul ForsterFall 2012PlatoJustice in the stateSeptember1812109 PMLast Class1Structure of ideal state1Who should rule2The noble lie used to implement the ideal1How rulers live and why1ObjectionsaRulers are unhappybIdeal city is vulnerable to wealthy citiescRulers have too many instructions to follow Three parts to the cityRulersAuxiliariesClass folk Rulers primary job is to preserve education systemprovides means to objectively place people where they best fitVirtues of the cityWisdomRulersoDecisions about how best to peruse the best for the stateCourageGuardiansoPreservation of the ideal in the face of pain threats extoAble to do so because there is a class dedicated to itSelfDisciplineTemperanceModerationClass FolkHarmony between classesoCitizens agree to be ruled by rulersoBetter part of the city rules the restoMust have harmony between partsJusticeEveryoneoEach individual does what they do bestoPrinciple of division of labouroEveryone gets what they need to fulfil themselvesoMakes all the other virtues possibleWisdomrulers wouldnt be the best suited peopleCourageWrong people in placeHarmonypeople wont want poor rulers to ruleSelfDisciplinepeople allow the better part of themselves to discipline the restJustice of the soulType textSeptember20121144 AMLike the state has 3 components and the same virtues Nothing can do opposite things or be in opposite statesIn the same part of itself at the same time in relation to the same object Three parts to the soulAlign with three parts of cityReasonWisdom knows truth and goodSpiritCourage employs the reason knows when and how to fightdefend to protect the selfDesireSelf Discipline creates harmonyJustice when all parts work togetherReason rules over spirit and desire with the consent of all partsIn the ideal soul when reason says desire is unreasonable desire doesnt rebel Desire vs Spiritthirsty but refuse to drinkSpirited vs DesireReason vs Spiritin children spirit is present without reason Reason can condemn spirit irrational angerSpirit wants to be angry reason knows shouldnt beTheory of FormsSeptember2512104 PMCave peopleWhen freed paincant seetake the shadow for the real world they see it betterEventually when adjusted they feel liberatedIf brought back he wouldnt be as good at seeing shadows may be deemed inferiorJourney out of the cave is from the sensible realm to the intelligible realmNeed to turn away from illusion to truth Lovers of wisdomphilosophersLovers of spectaclespractical folkordinaryKnowledgewisdom of all sortsParticular knowledgeForms themselves ex BeautyThings that instantiate the forms ex beautiful thingsSees true knowledge of what really isOpinion of what isis notSeeks knowledge of that is timeless eternal UnchangingUncertain depends on unchangingcircumstances Knows by dialecticKnowing by the senses AristotleVirtueSeptember27121148 AM
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