Study Guides (238,612)
Canada (115,252)
Philosophy (528)
PHI2396 (94)
All (28)

Notes for Midterm.doc

22 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Ottawa

TheoriesBioethics type of applied ethics Its the application of general ethical theories principles and rules to problems of therapeutic practice health care delivery and medical and biological researchHippocrates formulated the first code of ethics for health care professionals Hippocratic Oath This Oath outlined how physicians should conduct themselves in their professional practiceBioethics has a close relationship with the lawLaw defines social boundaries and conditions for the health care delivery It is arbitrary and depends on the will of the lawmakers Laws may be unethical Laws hold only in the jurisdiction where they have been passedEthics is a resource for developing a caselaw and for the formulation of medical statutesTheoretical biomedical ethics devises a general framework in which the notions of health and of health care delivery can be situated Results are policyorientedApplied biomedical ethics is caseorientedWhat is right or wrong good or bad depends upon how the person feels about itThis is a noncognitivist metaethical position or ethical noncognitivismMetaethical position saying something about ethics Metaabove or afterEthical noncognitivism ethics depends on feelings No matter how much logic or reasoning is used you can never settle a disagreement on what is right In other words we think we are right because it feels rightHowever our feelings or emotions may be fundamentally at variance with what we take to be ethically correct Ex A physician may reject abortions on an emotional level but agree that women have a right to abortions when ethically speakingEthical relativism ethics is relative to a particular point of view different people hold different ethical positions What is right or wrong is based on reasoning and not just on feelings but there is no objective and universal right or wrong Every individual or group has their own values and understanding of what is right and wrongProblems with ethical relativism1It confuses what is believed legislated or otherwise promulgated by a group of individuals with the question whether the people who accept this are correct2Believing that one is right does not necessarily make one right3It assumes that if people agree on something then it must be true4It is fundamentally at variance with our social practiceEthical objectivism ethics right and wrong is objective in nature ie recognized by everyone So when we make ethical claims we make claims about how the world really is Therefore peoples actions and dispositions have certain moral properties and are not just a matter of a point of view or feelingThis position will be accepted as trueTeleological or consequentialist theoriesUtilitarianism Uses principle of utilitygreatest good and least harm for theJohn Stuart Millgreatest amount of peoplePrinciple of utility does not tell what the nature of good or harm is so there are different types of utilitarianisms depending on the definition of good or bad how we identify this good or bad ie using intuition human nature or social norms and how to apply it Types of utilitarianism depending on definition of good utilitarianism HEMIHedonistic goodmaterial wellbeing or pleasureEudaemonistic goodhappinessIdeal goodattainment of certain idealsvaluesMixed goodachieve a balance between the above typesTypes of utilitarianism depending on how the test of utility is to be appliedAct utilitarianism Apply principle of utility on a casetocase basis without reference to universalitiesRule utilitarianism Utility cannot be calculated for individual acts but only for the general rule of conduct When dealing with a moral dilemma the decision making process should depend on identifying the general rule to be applied in the given situationDeontological theories not concerned with outcomes but with rights and duties 2 types1Monistic there is only one basic principle from which all judgements and rules of right and wrong must be derivedImmanuel Kantst1 definition categorical imperative act only according to that maxim by which you can at the same time will that it should become a universal lawie whatever you decide that your guiding moral principle maxim should be it should be able to be followed by everyone not just yound2 definition practical imperative act so that you treat humanity always as an end and never as a means onlyExamplePhysician lying to terminally ill patient who is at risk for psychological trauma According to Kant a lie is ALWAYS wrong
More Less

Related notes for PHI2396

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.