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PHI2396 Lecture Notes.docx

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Department
Philosophy
Course
PHI2396
Professor
Andrew Sneddon
Semester
Fall

Description
AbortionSherwinandWarrenThefeministapproachWhyabortionItdealsasapartofthetopicwiththestatusandrightofborderlineentitiessuchasfetusesInthediscussionofembryonicstemcellresearchcloningandgeneticengineeringweencounterthesameissuestatusandrightsofentitiessuchascellsembryoshumanvegetablesetcWhySherwinandWarrentogetherThepresentfeministperspectivewhichwewilljuxtaposetothenonfeministoneSusanSherwinAbortionthroughaFeministEthicLensMaryAnnWarrenOntheMoralandLegalStatusofAbortionSherwinstextwaswrittenafterWarrensandiscomplementarytoitSherwinfocusesmoreonthesocialconditionandoutcomeofabortionwhileWarrendealswiththeethicalsideofissueSherwinespousesarelationalontologythatisshethinksthatthequestionofautonomycannotbehandledwithoutconsideringtherelationshipbetweendifferentsocialgroupsfirstexPregnantwomenandfetusesAbortionlawinCanadathereisnolawpersebutitisnotcriminalizedYoucangetitwithoutanypermissionwithinthefirsttrimester12weeksAfterthefirsttrimesteryouneedalegitimatereasonfortheabortionArgumentsagainstabortionAbortioniskillinganinnocenthumanbringthereforewehavetolegallybanabortionunlesstherapeuticthreatensthelifeofthemotherandorthefetusAbortionasaresultofrapesometimesalsocountsastherapeuticVeryfewpeopledisputetherapeuticabortionsArgument1WomenareresponsibleforgettingpregnantandthereforetheyhavetobeheldresponsibleforbringingthehumanbabiestolifeandsafetyArgument2IfweallowabortionsthenweencourageirresponsiblebehaviourinpregnantwomenBothargumentsarebaseduponanunderlyingpremisethathumanfetusisahumanbeingwitharighttoliveFullyreconstructedantiabortionargumentsoItiswrongtokillinnocenthumanbeingsoFetusesareinnocenthumanbeingsoThereforeitiswrongtoabortfetusesLifestartsatthemomentofconceptionthisisthemostrigidreadingofthefirststatementanditoriginatesfromtheRomanCatholicChurchOthermoremoderatereadingswehavealivehumanformafterthefirstweekofpregnancyorlaterAfetusisapotentialhumanbeingwiththerighttolifesafetyfreedomandhappinessInanyofthesecasesthefetusisconsideredahumanbeingandthereforeabortionisconsideredmorallywrongandonthebasisofmoralityitisconsideredalsoillegalArgumentsfromaprochoicestandpointWomenhavetohavechoiceofabortioninvirtueofthebasicrightoffreedomofchoiceThereforewehavetoallowanytypeofabortionnotonlythetherapeuticonesPoliticalstandpointThemostmitigatedprochoicepositionevenifweagreethatabortionismorallywrongweshouldmakeitlegalbecauseIllegalabortionleadstodeathorseriousinjurytomanywomenwhichisequallywrongSupportstatsonillegalabortionarealwayshardtocomebybutwedoknowthatbetween1926and19474000to6000CanadianwomendiedasaresultofbungledillegalabortionsIfwewanttolowerthenumbersofabortionshereiswhatwecandooOfferfreeconsultationoMakesurethatwomenfullyunderstandtheconsequencesoftheiractionsoMakesurethatwomenarefullyawareoftheoptionstheyhaveiftheydecidetobecomemothersoratleastgivebirthtothechildchildsupportfinancingoptionsforadoptionetcoEnsureabettergovernmentchildsupportsystemFullfledgedprochoicepositionsTodenyaccesstoabortionistodenyawomanherrighttocontrolherownbodyWarrenthispositionisproblematicbecauseifwetreatthefemalebodyasherpropertythenwehavetotreatthebodyassomethingdistinctfromherherselfsincewetreateverytypeofpropertyasdistinctfromthepeoplewhoownitThisisnotthecasewithourbodiesOurbodiesareanintrinsicpartofusTothinkthatpregnantwomenwillbeirresponsibleiftheyhadchoiceinthemattersofabortionistostretchthingsbeyondrealityAbortionAtraumaticexperiencebothphysicallyandemotionallyWomendonotenjoyhavingabortionsEveniftherearecasesofirresponsiblebehaviortowardsonespregnancytherewillbeexceptionswhicharenotworththeprohibitionofabortionasabasicrightforwomenThecasescenariosdiscussedbyantiabortionistsarefarfetchedandhavenogroundsinrealityAnotherpartofthisobjectiontothelegalbanningofabortionevenifwomenarefullyresponsibleandextracarefultheycannotavoidunwantedpregnanciesbecausethecontraceptivedevicesdonoguaranteefull100protectionagainstpregnancyManyofthecontraceptivedevicesarehealthhazardousforsomewomenthereforetheycannotbeusedallthetimeThismakesabortiononeofthelegitimateoptionsforpreventingunwantedpregnanciesIfwomenaretoenjoyfreedomofsexualencountersasmendotheyshouldhaveoptionstoavoidunwantedpregnancyandsafeabortionisoneofthemWarrentacklesthemoralsideofabortionandleavesoutthesocialandlegalsidesHerstrongestobjectionagainsttheargumentagainstabortiontheconceptofhumanbeingintheargumentthatitismorallywrongtokillinnocenthumanbeingsThestatusoffetusasahumanbeingisproblematicTherearetwodifferentmeaningsofhumanbeingimplicitlypresentinthedefinitionofhumanbeingFirsthumanbeingsareallcreaturesthathavegeneticandphysicalcharacteristicsofthehumanspeciesSecondIthastodowithwhatweunderstandbyamoralagentHumanbeingsarefullfledgedmembersofthemoralcommunityAhumanbeingisconsideredeverybeingwhichcanmakemoraldecisionsandparticipateinthemoralcommunityThefirstpremiseoftheantiabortionistargumentthatitiswrongtokillinnocenthumanbeingsisacceptableonlyifweacceptthesecondmeaningofhumanbeingWhyFirstsayingthathumanbeingshavecertaingeneticandphysicalstructuredoesntimplyanythingmoralitdoesntimplythathumanbeingslifeisapreciousthingSecondWehavetoexplainwhywejustifythekillingofhumanbeingsincertaincasescapitalpunishmentwaretcThisshowsthatthecommunityofhumanbeingsoperateswiththeconceptsofmorallyrightandmorallywrongwhenitdefendsorconvictsitsmembersThereforewehavetoconcedethatmoralagentbestdescribeswhatwemeanbyahumanAfullfledgedmemberofthemoralcommunityisapersonSherwinspositionisconsideredapersonhoodpositionWhoisapersonFivecharacteristicsoConsciousnessoReasoningoSelfmotivatedactivityoCapacitytocommunicateinanywayoThepresenceofselfconceptsandselfawarenessofonesownbeingTheminimum2criteriaforbeingamoralagentistohaveconsciousnessANDreasoningBothneedtobemetOtherwiseyouwillallowformachinestohavethesamerightsashumansThemoralconceptsofgoodorbadareanintrinsicpartofourcognitiveapparatusreasoningThetwocriterianeedtobetakentogethernotseparatelyThefetushasnoneofthesecharacteristicshencenotapersonhencenotamemberofthemoralcommunityHumanvegetablementallyincapacitatedindividualsfuturegenerationsetcarealsonotpersonsSherwinaddstobeamoralagentisarelationalconceptandmustbedefinedintermsofinteractionsandrelationshipswithothersAmoralagentshouldbeabletomakemoraldecisionsandrespondtotheneedsofothermembersofthemoralcommunityTherelationshipsbetweenfullfledgedmoralagentsarepresumablysymmetricalMoralagentsexpresstheirneedsdesiresetcandexpectaresponsefromothermoralagentsButtherelationshipandthefetusandthemotherisclearlyanasymmetricalonebecausethefetusisfullydependentonthemotherforitssurvivalAlsothefetuscannotrespondtotheneedsofthemotheritstheotherwayaroundThusthefetuscannotbeconsideredinanymorallysignificantwayafullfledgedmoralagentorapersonAnimportantconsequenceonlypersonsthatisfullfledgedmembersofthemoralcommunityareentitledtofullmoralrightsMoralrightscomewithmoralobligationsandresponsibilitiesTwoquestionsoResemblancetopersonhoodoPotentialityResemblancetopersonhooda7montholdfetusresemblesapersonmorethananembryoWarrenyesa7montholdfetusissomewhatlikeapersonitcanfeelpainbutthisonlymeansthatithassomewhatofamoralstatusFullfledgedmembersofthemoralcommunityhavefullmoralstatusnotsomewhatofamoralstatusInvirtueofthisitisnotimmoraltoabortafetusinthelaterstagesofdevelopmentitmaybeindecentbutisnotimmoralPotentialityWhataboutthefetusapotentialhumanbeingpersonWarrenpotentialhumanbeingspersonshavesomemoralstatusandvaluetheyarenotmereobjectsinthesensethatweshouldntwantonlydestroythemOntologicallyspeakingactualityoutweighspotentialityPotentialhumanbeingsdonotenjoyfullmoralrightsincludingrighttolifethatafullfledgedmemberofthemoralcommunityenjoys
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