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Exam Notes-Ethics.docx

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Department
Philosophy
Course
PHI2397
Professor
All Professors
Semester
Winter

Description
ExamNotesEthicsLecture1EthicswhatshouldIdoShouldIdoitforthegreatergoodWhatisrightorwrongItsnotaboutwhatyouCANdoSelfishnessvsselflessSelfishpeopletakeSelflesspeoplegiveSelfishpeoplemakelifeharderforotherswhileselflesspeoplemakelifemorepleasurableforthosearoundthemCourageselfsacrificeConsequentialismbesttoworstdowhatisgoodallunderheavenUtilitarianismDowhatbenefitsthegreatergoodDeontologyTherightmoralsthPlato4CenturyGreekConsequentialistAnhonorablepersonkeepstheirwordsDontstealTodowhatisgoodyouthinkabouttheconsequencesEpicurusThereasonforlicingistobehappyWhatishappiness1Tohavefriends2Tohavefreedom3AndtohaveenoughmoneyforthebasicneedsthJeremyBentham18CenturyEnglishUtilitarianThepainpleasureprincipletoseekpleasureandavoidpainAnimalshavemoralrightsandaremorallyequaltohumansJohnStuartMillCanadasPhilosopherUtilitarianAccusesBenthamofbeingaHedonistonlyseekingpleasureSaysthatqualityofpleasureismoreimportantthenquantityofpleasureItisbettertobeanunhappypersonthenahappypigIfpeopleweretochoosethepigitisbecausetheyareincapableofthehigherthJohnRawls20AmericanActUtilitarianismvsruleUtilitarianismWastheonewhobroughtinrulestoutilitarianismTohaveagoodsocietypeoplemustkeeptheirpromisesCantbethegreatestgoodforthegreatestnumberPeterSingerSaysthatonceyouachieveabasicsenseofhappinessitisyourobligationtomakeothershappyAllyouexcesswealthistobegiventothedeservingpeoplewithoutexcesswealthArgumentforCharityJustbecausetheyareunknownitisnottheanswertotokillanunknownhumanisnotrightLackofcertaintyisnottheanswerYoucouldsaythatthepoorwilldieanywayssowhyhelpthemIfwecansacrificesomethingthatisnotimportanttousbutcouldhelpothersweshouldRobertNozickcriticofutilitarianismWewouldliketobeacertainwayratherthenfeelingacertainwayKantSaysthataworldbasedonfeelingshasnojusticeRightsarethingsthatiftheyexistarethereweatheryouwantthemornotNaturalrightsRighttoexistTherighttoreligionMoralityexistsbecausehumansexistHumanshave2qualitiesthatarenecessaryformoralstoexistwehavefreedomtochooseandreasonrightvswrongTreatallpersonalrulestouniversallawtreatallhumansandendsasneverasmeansLecture3Video Should I do what is right or what will be for the greater good Two main theoriesConsequentialism based on consequence of your actionsDeontology you do what you believe is rightyou have a duty to do what reason tells you is right regardless of the consequencesDeon greekdutyPhilosopher Plato4th BC Greekwrote dialogues plays where there is always a heroSocrates
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