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PHI 2397 ethics final notes.docx

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University of Ottawa

September 12watched The Corporationthe corporation is a legal personpersonality of pure selfinterest callous and deceitful breaches social and legal standards to get its way it does not suffer from guilt yet it can mimic the human qualities of empathy caring and altruismcriteria of a psychopath Unprecedented wealth at no costIndividuals who run the corporation are not held responsible for its actionsTarget very young childrennag factorSeptember 19RulesActShould I do what is right or what will provide the greatest goodConsequentialismWeight of GoodDeontologyDuty Do what reason tells you is right Religious viewsDeonGreekDutythPlato 4 BC Greek PhilosopherDialogues PlaysKeeping your worddont stealDialogs involving Socratesmost philosophers were consequentialistsEpicurus HappinessAristotle and EdwardsMovie Snippet Jet Li HEROAll Under Heaven is GoodthJBentham 18 Century CriminologistPain or Pleasure theoristFoundation of moralsDuty is to create the greatest amount of happinessUtilitarianismUtilityusefulnessEnds Justifies the MeansShould you sacrifice human life to save othersConsequentialism is based on wants not rightsRights Dictative governing systemsthJohn Stuart Mills 19 Century UtilitarianAcusses Bentham of being a hedonist Quality over Quantity HapinessBelieved Quality is equal if not more important than quantity Intellectual HappinessIt is better to be an unhappy human than a happy pig ReasonDignityMills suggests Benthams theory is based on base pleasures Mills states happiness is not an abstract ideaHe does not believe theres an ultimate happy Like moneyand power They are goodIf these things make you happy you are in violation of utilitarian principleRawes Claims Utilitarian society functions must have hidden rulesNeed for Rules as Promises cant be taken seriouslyPeter SingerWrote the book on Animal Rightsbelieved in the obligation for charitable donationsMaking a insignificant sacrifice in order to achieve the goaleg If you have extra money then you are obligated as a Utilitarian to give it to the deserving poorCOUNTER and RETORTS 1I dont know the peoplepoor aJust because the person you help in unknown is not an excuseIf you hurt someone you dont know is that okay2Theres no guarantee my money will help themaNot being certain wether your money will help is also no excuse3If I didnt exist the poor would still existaThe fact is you do exist therefore there is no reason to pretend you dontRobert NozickCritic of UtilitarianismExistentialargument Feelings arent everythingFeeling happy cant be everything in lifeIt is more important to be a certain way rather than to feel a certain waythKant 18 Century German PhilosopherReligionRights Justice EqualityFeelings are what guides moral actions thus justice cannot resistMoralas should be based on reasonsRights traditionally found associated to religionDeontology Katian EthicsMorals can only exist if freedom and reason exist Human have both reason and freewillCategorical ImperativeDetective rules for moralityHypothetical ImperativeTwo rules are divided through the facts of human nature and moralityReason Logic maximeg Act so that your personal maxim can be universal lawSince all humans are intrinsically moral thus they can be used as means but not as endsBecause morality is its own endAct so that you never treat people as means but as endsDO WHAT IS RIGHT REGARDLESS OF THE CONSEQUENCES ONE MUST ALWAYS TELL THE TRUTHSeptember 26Myth of Gygesancient tale retold by Plato Dialogues plays Hero is always is real life teacher SocratesPlato wrote The Republic on selfishness unjust and evilSocrates never wrote down anything because he did not believe written words because they did not capture the true meaning of spoken wordsEgoism Selfinterest involving decisionsSelfinterest vs Selfishness differsthHobbes 17 EnglishThe LeviathanNaturally seekers of our selfinterest Psychological egoism Popular theory that claim that even if you dont realize it you are only really seeking your own interest The opposite would be psychological altruism not as popular do stuff truly for others They are not ethical theories because moral requires choice if free will does not exist than morality does not really exist eitherhow can you be responsible for something if you did not make any choice These theories are nonnormative Normativethere are choicesEthical egoismYou have a choice and you should choose your selfinterest selfishness That is normativePsychological egoism and psychological altruism are useless because they are impossible to provePlato Two students arguing for selfishness evil to Socrates their teacher Glaucon and ThrychymachusYou should be selfish evilIt is better to be an evil person that everyone thinks is a good person than a good person that everyone thinks is evilWe all to some extent admire the successful bad man more than the unsuccessful good man Religion Hellenism it actually supports the selfish evil person It puts loop holes in the law that allows such a person to get away with it Just perform some ritual pilgrimage etc and you will be cleansedOnly frightened and weak people choose the just life Myth of Gyges if we could turn invisible magic ring then morality would not exist it would not exist as a concept Assumption about human nature We are all naturally selfish evil and we only do good out of fear of punishmentAre human beings morally governed on a rewardpunishment basisThat is the classic argument for selfishnessWhat did Socrates said is return
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