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Grade 12 Physics Chapter Summaries.docx

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Department
Physics
Course
PHY1122
Professor
All Professors
Semester
Winter

Description
Grade 12 Physics Chapter SummariesSpeedandVelocityinOneandTwoDimensionsAscalarquantityhasmagnitudebutnodirectionAveragespeedisthetotaldistancetravelleddividedbythetotaltimeoftravelAvectorquantityhasbothmagnitudeanddirectionPositionisthedistancewithadirectionfromsomereferencepointDisplacementisthechangeofpositionVelocityistherateofchangeofpositionAveragevelocityischangeofpositiondividedbythetimeintervalforthatchangeInstantaneousvelocityisthevelocityataparticularinstantInstantaneousspeedisthemagnitudeoftheinstantaneousvelocityTheslopeofthelineonapositiontimegraphindicatesthevelocityTheareaunderthelineonavelocitytimegraphindicatesthechangeofpositionIntwodimensionalmotiontheaveragevelocityisthetotaldisplacementdividedbythetimeintervalforthatdisplacementAccelerationinOneandTwoDimensionsAverageaccelerationistheaveragerateofchangeofvelocityInstantaneousaccelerationistheaccelerationataparticularinstantThetangenttechniquecanbeusedtodeterminetheinstantaneousvelocityonapositiontimegraphofacceleratedmotionTheslopeofthelineonavelocitytimegraphindicatestheaccelerationTheareaunderthelineonanaccelerationtimegraphindicatesthechangeinvelocityTherearefivevariablesinvolvedinthemathematicalanalysisofmotionwithconstantaccelerationandtherearefiveequationseachofwhichhasfourofthefivevariablesIntwodimensionalmotiontheaverageaccelerationisfoundbyusingthevectorsubtractionvvv dividedbythetimeintervaltfiAccelerationDuetoGravityFreefallisthemotionofanobjectfallingtowardthesurfaceofEarthwithnootherforceactingonitthangravity2TheaverageaccelerationduetogravityatEarthssurfaceisg98msdownTheaccelerationduetogravitydependsonlatitudealtitudeandlocaleffectssuchasthedistributionofmineraldepositsTheconstantaccelerationequationscanbeappliedtoanalyzemotionintheverticalplaneTerminalspeedisthemaximumspeedreachedbyanobjectfallinginairorotherfluidsWhenafallingobjectreachesterminalspeeditsdownwardaccelerationbecomeszeroanditsvelocitybecomesconstantProjectileMotionAprojectileisanobjectmovingthroughtheairinacurvedtrajectorywithnopropulsionsystemProjectilemotionismotionwithaconstanthorizontalvelocitycombinedwithaconstantverticalaccelerationThehorizontalandverticalmotionsofaprojectileareindependentofeachotherexcepttheyhaveacommontimeProjectilemotionproblemscanbesolvedbyapplyingtheconstantvelocityequationforthehorizontalcomponentofthemotionandtheconstantaccelerationequationsfortheverticalcomponentofthemotionFramesofReferenceandRelativeVelocityAframeofreferenceisacoordinatesystemrelativetowhichmotioncanbeobservedRelativevelocityisthevelocityofanobjectrelativetoaspecificframeofreferenceAtypicalrelativevelocityequationisvvvwherePistheobservedobjectandEistheobserverorPEPAAEframeofreferenceForcesandFreeBodyDiagramsWecommonlydealwithEarthsforceofgravitythenormalforcetensionforcesandfrictionforcesStaticfrictiontendstopreventastationaryobjectfromstartingtomovekineticfrictionactsagainstanobjectsmotionAirresistanceactsagainstanobjectmovingthroughairThefreebodydiagramFBDofanobjectshowsalltheforcesactingonthatobjectItisanindispensabletoolinhelpingtosolveproblemsinvolvingforcesThenetforce FisthevectorsumofalltheforcesactingonanobjectNewtonsLawsofMotionDynamicsisthestudyofforcesandtheeffectstheforceshaveonthevelocitiesofobjectsThethreelawsofmotionandtheSIunitofforcearenamedafterSirIsaacNewtonNewtonsfirstlawofmotionalsocalledthelawofinertiastatesIfthenetforceactingonanobjectiszerotheobjectmaintainsitsstateofrestorconstantvelocityInertiaisthepropertyofmatterthattendstokeepanobjectatrestorinmotionAnobjectisinequilibriumifthenetforceactingonitiszerowhichmeanstheobjectiseitheratrestorismovingataconstantvelocityNewtonssecondlawofmotionstatesIftheexternalnetforceonanobjectisnotzerotheobjectacceleratesinthedirectionofthenetforceTheaccelerationisdirectlyproportionaltothenetforceandinverselyproportionaltotheobjectsmassThesecondlawcanbewritteninequationformasaFm equivalently FmaBoththefirstandsecondlawsdealwithasingleobjectthethirdlawdealswithtwoobjectsTheSIunitofforceisthenewtonN1N 51kgms2
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