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University of Ottawa
Political Science

Political Science POL1101CLuc TurgeonJournal of DemocracyuOttawa libraryMidTerm Test 25 Oct 29th 90 minutes in classDefinitions one essay with choicesEssay 30 Nov 26th8 PagesFinal Exam 35Definitionsessays with choicesFocus of definitions will be the second half of the course but themes for essay may span the entire courseTable of ContentsthWhat is PoliticsSept 10thState Nation NationalismSept 17 thDemocracy and its AlernativesSept 24 stDemocracy Preconditions transition consolidationOctober 1 thEconomy and SocietyOctober 15 th Sept 10What is PoliticsMintz et al Activity related to influencing making or implementing collective decisions for a political communityMax Weber Politics for us means striving to share power or striving to influence the distribution of power either among states or among groups within a stateHarold Laswell Who gets what when and howPower The ability of A to make B do something that they would not have done otherwise Formal def The ability to achieve an objective by influencing the behaviour of others paticularly to get them to do what they would not have otherwise doneFight for political power is zero sum gamePower of an actor or group of actor can not be increased without taking power from someone elseSo politics generates winners and losersPolitics is striving for the greater good of society and communityCynical View on PoliticsHenry AdamsSee slideWhat is Political ScienceThe study of how organized disputes are articulatedthen resolved by the decisions of governmentTwo dimensions to the disciplineNormative prescriptive The way things should beAnalytical descriptive Explaining why things are the way they are empiricalIt is the empirical aspect of political science that strives to be scientificWhat do political scientists studyPolitical phenomenaMore than the study of forms of government example movementsThe personal is political relations of power between men and women englishfrench etcRelations of powerDifferent levels of governmentInternational regional national povincial localDifferent types of actorsCitizens interest groups social movements political parties governmentDifferent decisionmaking modelsSEE SLIDE INTROFour primary fieldsInternational Relations UN World Bank etcPolitical Theory Study of great thinkers how things should beComparative PoliticsDomestic politics of countriesUse of comparative method to uncover laws of politicsCanadian Politics politics for home countryRelated fieldsPublic policy and public administrationWomens studies Queers studiesInternational developmentOften combined descriptiveprescriptive aspects of political science thWhy Political Science Sept 10 2012Unlike the pure sciences the core concepts in political scienceother social sciences are contentiousLike pure sciences an important but contentious goal is to uncover laws of social behaviour or at least to generatetest theories of social behaviourTension desire to balance parsimonious explanation with an understanding of the inherent complexity of social relationsSociety does not function within a laboratory environmentTwo types of democratic systems parliamentarypresidencialDemocracy has a better chance of surviving in a parliamentary system than a presidencial systemLast 71 years on a Parliamentary systemLast 20 years on a Presidencial systemPresidencial Usually a deadlock between congresspresident US for example cant get things donethState Nation Nationalism Sept 17 2012TermsThe State Mintz et al An independent selfgoverning political community whose governing institutions have the capability to make rules that are biding on the population residing within a particular territoryMax Webera human community that successfully claims the monoply of the legitimate use of the force within a given territoryDifference between state and government Government changes State does not change institutions remain the sameGovernments are the instruments of the state to keep the state in order Greek city states Roman empire is a stateNecessity of State Hobbes says that without State there would be no control No place for industry because the fruit thereof is uncertain Life would be nasty brutish and short without it Full quote on slideBecause of state we have 1Order2Protection of life Without a strong state life of humans would be short life3Defending property rightswithout state anyone can come to your house and say this land is my land now4The state is essential to enforce contractsyou cant have a capitalist system if you dont have the power to enforce contractsFailed State is one that is incapable of insuring a monoply of the legitamate use of violence within a given territory does not have full controlFour characteristics to a fail state1Lose of physical control of the territory2Erosion of the legitimacy of the state No recognizion that the leaders are in power3Inability to provide basic public services Such as making sure there is roads and parliament4Inability to interact with other states as a full member of the international community Example of failed state Somalia National army only controlled capital whereas the rest of the land was controlled by Islamic groups etc Not considered a good concept by some people because it is politically charged might be used as a reason to go and invade such as in AfganistanTreaty of Westphalia 1648 Treaty that was signed to end the 30 years war in Europe between protestantcatholic but also different monarchies Notion of sovereigntyEstablish the foundations of national armiesthEmergence of core group of states that would dominate European and World politics until the early 20 century SovereigntythNationstate A form that a political community can take Emerged in the late 18 century Definition A sovereign state based on people living in a country who share a sense of being a member of a paticular nation Before for example kings could take over land and claim it as part of their state Now it depends on the peopleKey movements in the creation of nationstates Revolutionary momentFrance and the United States Italian and German UnificationWoodrow Wilson and the right to selfdetermination He said Each nation should have its own country instead of being under the control of kings and monarchs like the ottoman empireEnd of colonialism End of the Soviet Union and other Communist Regimes Nation Mintz A group of people who share a sense of common identity and who typically believe they should be selfgoverning within their homelandBenedict Anderson A nation is an Imagined CommunityNations can take different forms classic way is language The case of AlsaceLorraine fight between french and german whether the place belongs to France or to GermanyNationalism The JanusFaced Character of Nationalism Potentially takes two formsDefinition A belief system that gives special significance to the nation as a source of loyalty a nation it wishes to promote and preserve Two faces of NationalismNationalism and democracy if the nation is ultimately sovereign then you want to kick out dictators Because we are all part of the nation we are equal we make our own decisionsNationalism and exclusionTwo types of nationalsim
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