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Final Notes POL2101 - DiGiacomo

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University of Ottawa
Political Science
Gordon Digiacomo

POL2101: Intro to Canadian Politics Gordon DiGiacomo Lecture 1: June 18h th Midterm July 4 Exam July 30 4-7  Canadian politics is a sub-field of Politics, comparative politics, etc…  What is politics? o The art and science of governments o Influencing and making policy o Politics is about power o Found pretty much anywhere. in business, in government, at university level, in churches, and in families  Politics is the activity in which groups or individuals struggle for power and advantage to determine “who get what when and how”  Influencing and making collective decisions  What is the state? o The totality of public institutions that have the authority and legitimacy to enact and enforce laws. Applies to an area of definite boundaries and has a monopoly over the legitimate use of force o Must have a permanent population, a defined territory, a government, and a capacity to enter into relations with other states. It can be likened to a car, the State is the Car, and the government in the driver  The public Sector o Refers to institutions and departments and crown corporations within the government  The Private sector o Refers to small businesses, corporations, charitable organizations, and privately traded company  Political institution: Persistent and connected sets of rules, formal and informal, that prescribe behavior rules, constrain/permit activity and shape  Democracy: The people rule o A system of governance in which the people rule either directly or through the election of representative. Can be found anywhere o Struggle for democracy underlies many political struggles o Electoral process, articulation of view, and direct or indirect representation o The collective grouping of laws to the people subject to those laws o Minimal conditions include  Control of gov’t decision must be constitutionally bested by elected officials  Elected officials are chosen in frequent and fair elections  All adults may be allowed to vote and run for office  Citizens must have the right to express themselves without fear of punishment  Citizens must have the right to seek out information  Citizens must have the right to for independent associations  For democracy to flourish, citizens must hold certain beliefs and values. Views of political engagement must be accepted by the citizens, must value involvement, must value participation  Canada has been described as a liberal democracy o Liberal democracy: Certain civil and political rights are guaranteed, and are essential for a democracy to flourish. A state bearing these rights is rights is referred to as a liberal democracy  Accountability of officials  Constitutional limits on state power  Belief in liberalism and right  \majority rule  Political competition  Legal and political equality  The law is supreme and applies to all o Representative democracy  Citizens elect representatives to make decisions on their behalf  Comprised of referendums, initiatives (people will draft a law of policy and if a number of citizens sign a petition it can be put to a vote), recall (citizens can acquired petitions to hold an election in a riding for a member whom is not liked o Deliberative democracy:  Citizens are assembled in groups and a period of time to discuss certain issues  A few years ago many Ontarians gathered to change the electoral systems in Ontario  The Canadian Constitution o Comprises the Charter of Rights and Freedoms o Establishes the institutions of government, describes processes of by which laws can be made, establishes restriction on the laws of the states, and expresses shared values  Civil Society o All organizations and groups between the family and the state while excluding business that provide cheques and balances to government o Essential for vibrant democracy o Can take many forms, not all political (book clubs, religious associations, hockey clubs) o Some more political than others  Political engagement: o Different from civic engagement o Civic engagement: Set of activities in your community (volunteering) o Civic can be used along with citizen o Canada has a high level of citizen engagement o Political engagement: The actions people take to raise awareness of issues and influences the choice of gov’t personnel and to shape the context of government policies (Ex: protest, joining political parties, petitions, voting, running for office)  A reasonable level of political interest and knowledge, a reasonable level of trust in government are essential to democratic culture. The level of civic involvement in embarrassingly low  Canadians aged from 18-24, fewer than 40% voted, however there is a strong adherence to individualistic beliefs  Resulting in a declining level of political engagement  The highest level of political engagement in the US is during the depression years, and during the War years. Cyber activism:  Has becomes more prominent in recent years  Political activism employing online communications tools that has been used by protest groups to great effect  Tool for activism and may be where young people feel more comfortable Theory:  A Logical explanation for why things are the way they are People look for explanarespotion of political phenomena  And concentrate on the actions of groups, actions of classes, the elites  How social groups and institutions shape policy Class Analysis:  Who pays? Who determines? Who benefits? th Lecture 2: (June 20 ) Base Points:  Economic/social context  Canadian Political culture  Confederation A successful country is wealthy, democratic, human rights are respected,  Indicators th o GDP, 27 on the list  States ranks 15h o Human development index: measures countries on life expectancy, education, and GNP per capita o Index of democracy: measure the degree of democracy in a country  Canada ranks number 1 o Freedom house measures how political rights and liberties are respected The Canadian economy has a number of major features Economic context of politics  Market based economy (capitalist) o Right to private property is protected o Prices determined by supply and demand o Industrial methodology is the motus operandi of business o Substantial business competition  Highly resource dependent o Canada has always been dependent on resources o Cod harvesting, exploitation of forests, mining reserves, oil sands o Oil exports a huge driver of economy o North are resource rich areas awaiting exploitation  Forests are over exploited  Salmon are in an uncertain state  Environmental degradation is prominent across Canada o More economic growth means more government involvement o Gov’ts and business have not been concerned with being a manufacturing power  High degree of foreign ownership o The ownership of Canadian corporation by outside interests (US, China, Europe) o Has been the pattern for a long time o Reliance on British capital for development (aka debt capital) o It is now known as Equity capital (Ownership) o Difficult to do economic planning when the country is owned by foreigners o Can be reversed by jacking up tariffs, setting up companies to work in Canada o Can be viewed as a good thing o Leftern politicians see no difference o Excessive foreign ownership may make it difficult to steer the economy o Harper government have limited state owned foreign company’s buying powers  Depends greatly on trade (with the US) o ¾ of our trade is with the US o ¾ of that is trade within corporations (Microsoft Canada and Microsoft) o Canadian Gov’t have been seeking Free trade agreements o Govts impose tariffs on goods to increase prices and favour home based company o Subsidies are given to favour home based companies o Globalization is an economic concept o To facilitate the free movement of capital goods in the interest of profit-seeking orgs o Remove or reduce tariffs o Consequences =  Attractiveness to foreign countries  Decreased labour laws, and env regulations  NAFTA, reduced taxes, govt spending o Globalisation has an impact on politics and policy  Influences democracy itself  There is a tension b/w the needs of corporations and needs of citizens  High degree of state involvement o John A Macdonald was determined to assist the railways and build infrastructure o Negative = close relationship b/w politicians and businesses o The closeness remains o As does govt involvement in business activities o Bailouts, tax breaks, loans o Use fiscal and monetary policy to stabilise the economy o Govt presence reduced in a direct sense o This approach is called neoliberalism  Ideological perspective based on a strong belief in a free market system that advocates such measures as a major reduction in government involvement, including the dismantling of the welfare state, reduction in taxes, and global free trade  To this day we view Canada as being expendable o The federal government stayed out of the Quebec referendum o The federal gov’t did absolutely nothing Social context of Politics  The gap between those with large incomes and those with small incomes  The growing of that gap  No rise in the disposable incomes of the average Canadians, non-simillar to those of previous decades  Canada is a welfare state o Where the state provides an income floor to help the retire, disabled, unemployed o Labour legislation to regular work places o Childcare support o Very expensive (healthcare is 40% of Ontario’s budget)  Stimulus for welfare spending emerged in the great depression  The tax justice network estimate that tax savings come to the trillions of dollars  Canada’s 1 percent’s income has doubled recently  Inequality amongst gender, race, sexual minorities  Social classes: o Broad groupings of people with similar education and similar education status o Serious class differences exist whether they are conscious or not  Differences in wealth across Canada o Such as the Maritimes being less well off than other provinces o Equalisation payments made to the poorer provinces o Recently put into the constitution by the PM  Gender inequality remains a feature in Canadian segregation o Women often stuck in lower paying jobs o And healthcare for family  Charter of rights and freedoms has helped gay and lesbians against discrimination in equality exists and persists marked by differential in income o Govt efforts to deal with it have been substantial and ongoing Political culture:  Fundamental political values, beliefs, customs, and orientations that are widely held within a political community  Attitudes about govts role on freedom, equality, democracy, justice, rights o Issues one would talk about while discussing political culture o Can learn about Political culture by paying attention to political discussion o More prosperous regions may stress different values than poor regions o Whether the government exists to do good to the country or themselves o About the citizens sense on political efficacy  Whether they can influence political decisions and be effective in political discussion  Political efficacy is low = political participation is low  Efficacy in Canada may be low due to people feeling powerless towards politicians  Political discourse o The ways in which politics is discussed and the rhetoric used in political persuasion  Political socialization o Referring to how young people learn about politics and the political beliefs of the culture o Media, schools, family, interest groups, peers are the main influences o Begins in childhood, pick up messages about authority, inclusion, exclusion o Shaped in part by how we are treated in the family and where we are in the family context o Evolve and re-socialized as we become engaged in the world  Political ideology*** o A consistent set of beliefs about how society should be run or operated o Most often used when speaking of the role of the state or income inequality o Consists of:  A theory about the causes of a society’s dysfunctions  And a prescription for those ails o The dominant ideologies are liberalism, conservatism, socialism, and nationalism o Recent 2 more ideologies have emerged – feminism and environmentalism o Less popular: libertarianism, and communitarianism o Serves a number of functions  Explanatory function  Offers and explanations for why economic condition are what they are  Evaluative functions  Determines if what you have explained is good or bad  Orientation function  Gives people a way to approach an issue and analyze it  Programmatic function  The sis your program for dealing with society’s problems o All of us bear ideologies as we all have a value system o Important that we do not hold too tightly to our ideology as rigidity will ignore certain realities, while its gives you something to believe in and a platform for action  Theories to explain our political culture o How did these ideologies become formed o 1) The Fragman theory  Canada has received many waves of immigrants and that their values have been mixed (the loyalists from the US, the Scotts, Irish, English)  Immigration has been responsible to a significant degree for our political values o 2) Formative events theory  Certain Countries events shaped people’s ideas about politics  The great depression changed attitudes towards the state o 3) The Post-materialist theory  Prolonged economic affluence and security have resulted in certain values such as: environmental concern o 4) The theory that states that Political culture is mainly shaped by the power holders in society  Such as: The economic elite, the media holders The Confederation (**On the midterm**)  The creation of Canada  The move toward constitution (1867) o Fundamental document of the state that provides the basic law with which all subsequent laws must preform o Provides the framework under which businesses operate o Limit the reach and authority of governments by guarding certain rights and freedoms The constitution has 4 purposes:  Establishes the institutions of government  Defines the powers and responsibilities of each  Describes in broad terms the processes by which laws can be made  Restricts the powers of the state over citizens  And expresses the shared values of the population The constitution is usually written and may consist of several documents  2 main documents:  Constitution act of 1867  Constitution act of 1982 Many refer to Canada’s creation as a confederation  Canada is not a confederation but a Federation o Terms that deal with the relations between the federal and the provincial government  Power relations  Canada’s constitution places Canada nearer to a federation than a confederation  Federation: Union of governments and citizens o Can deal with citizens directly o Law making lies with the federal government  Confederation: Union of governments o Does not deal with citizens directly o Law making lies in the provinces or states Constitution act of 1867  Set out how Canada is to be governed  Through sections 91 and 95 th Lecture 3: (June 25 ) Base points:  Discussion  Left-overs  Political ideologies/parties Constitution act of 1867 sets out generally how Canada will be governed  Sections 91-95 law out the power of federal and provincial governments  Central conflict of Canada bases on those sections  The journey to the creation of Canada and the constitution of 1867 began developing in 1763 with the Royal Proclamation  Continued with the Quebec act of 1774  Constitution act of 1791  And the act of union in 1840  They remain very important even though they are not common  The 1982 constitution action references the royal proclamation  Quebec act is the official legal source to constitutionally entrenched legal  In 2004, the Québec premier referred to the Québec act as Canada’s most fundamental document. It represents one of the most enlightened decisions ever made for Canada The Royal Proclamation:  Established boundaries of British colonies  Was very tolerant of the French catholic inhabitants o Let them speak French and practice Catholicism  Purpose of the act was to assimilate the French population in a sea of English  Very significant for the way it treated the aboriginals and did not see them as conquered people, but seen as allies o Colonists were told to leave aboriginal land  British accepted that they would have to purchase or negotiate for Aboriginal land  They were viewed as sovereign nations and viewed as such Quebec act:  Let them speak French Catholics given political rights  Absence of civilian representative governments  Generous treatment of the French by the British, explains why the French Canadians maintained a solid attachment to the British crown  British institutions to protect the French The constitutional act of 1791:  After the American revolution, 1000s of Americans fled to the Maritimes, southern Ontario, and eastern townships of Quebec  The British included a revision for 2 provinces (Ontario, and Quebec)  An elected assembly in each and an appointed council  The governor of these provinces listened to their parties and ignored the assembly  Got to the point of rebellion in 1837 in both colonies o Papineau in Quebec o Mackenzie in Ontario  The rebellions had lasting significance whilst lacking military significance  Britain did send an investigator, Lord Durham, who urged the unity of those two provinces o He vouched for assimilation  Act of union born in 1840 as well as the united province of Canada  1848 saw the creation of PEI, Nova Scotia o IF executives lose the confidence of legislative assembly, the government falls and an election must be held  In 1860’s John A Macdonald becomes anxious and starts to talk about a new Canadian Nation and discussed approaching the Maritimes to join  What were they motivated by?: o Leaders were very frustrated by their inability to get things done together  Agreement between the French and English was difficult o The western politicians disliked the rule of equal representations form both parts of the province, wanted greater representation  Canada east didn’t like the attempt to assimilate them o B/w 1862-1867 = 18 different governments in that area o All politicians supposedly wanted free trade among the provinces o The founders wanted a stronger military to resist the Americans  Not going to add soldiers, riffles, or deter foes o Had to do with the link of leading business interests and leading politicians o Want to finish the railway o Wanted semi-independence to secure their investments  1864 Political leaders gathered in Charlottetown and talked about unions o Agreed to basic rules  Canada would be a federal union and regions would maintain its distinctness  1864 in Quebec city o 72 resolutions which form the basis for the constitution act of 1867 o Spent LOTS of time talking about the senate o VERY LITTLE time spent on sections 91-95 (most important sections) o NL, PEI declined and the united province of Canada approved it by a handful of votes o No referendum o Vote held in NB against Canada  This equalled to a creation of Canada under circumstances of ambivalence o Ambivalence about the creation of Canada  ***3 Arguments (Important) o First feature of canada’s creation is that the founders were not avid democrats, they were dismissive of referendum, their senate was an appointed body, and they believed that the legitimacy of the constitution derived from the crown. Aboriginals were lowered and the approval the constitution in NB and NS had a total lack of transparency and accountability o The founders could not be described as Strong Canadian nationalists; the sense of attachment to the created state was not deep. Nor was their sense of trust in each other or in their established institutions. The state created was not fully sovereign and remained tied to Britain. Did not contain a declaration of independence or an amending formula. Constitution did not establish a Canadian supreme court. This gave British courts the opportunity of British courts to change the constitution, or treaty making power o The founders provided for the bulk of lawmaking resided with the federal government. Wanted to establish a powerful uniting federal government. Provision in constitution to disallow provincial legislation. Political parties and Ideologies Parties: an organization that endorses one or more of its members as candidates and supports their election. Primary objective is to acquire power and govern the jurisdiction in which they reside Parties: Seeks influence in a state by attempting to occupy positions in government, usually consists pf more than a single interest in a society and aggregate interests Parties: and institution that seeks influence of a state by attempting to occupy government positions, usually consists of more than a single interest and attempts to aggregate interests  Does not emphasise electoral functions Parties (Burke): A body of men united for promoting by their join endeavors their national interests upon a particular principle on which they all agree  Raises stature and broadens horizon Different types:  Well defined ideologies o Reform Party  The NDP (aka CCF)  Ethnicity based parties o Bloc Quebecois  Tent Parties/ Brokerage parties o Liberal/ Conservative parties o Strong electoral priority o Very important in Canada  Movement parties o Try to promote principle over electoral success o Green party  Political parties emerge for a reason. Because of social conflict and sound political cleavage, Liberal and radical parties emerge because a new middle class wants a say in government and does not agree with the view  Labour Parties/Social democratic parties o Working class/union based parties o Emerge because of the growth of capitalist power o Fight for better working conditions, wages  Green parties emerged for the preservation of the environment  Other parties emerged due to a uniquely felt sense of grievance  Liberal -> Conservative -> labour parties -> socialist -> right wing extremists -> environmental  Provincially there are similar parties to the federal government  Most parties adhere to an ideology (see definition above)  Often use terms left and right  The definitions of these terms are the role of the state o Left equates to okay with state intervention and problems with equality  NDP want a strong role for the state  Far left is communist parties o Right equates to problems with intervention and okay with equalities  Conservatives believe in a minimal state and worry not about economical gaps  Far right is fascist parties (Nazis, military) o Central we have liberal parties o Center left = social democratic o Central right = Conservative parties  Liberalism emerged in Europe and is preoccupied with rights o John Locked argued all human beings have the right to life, liberty and property o Government is meant ot protect those rights o Philosophy around economic rights – property o Tired of being closed out of government by the wealthy o Associated nicely with capitalism o Flaws due to the emphasis on liberal rights o Poverty’s rights differ from those born into wealth  Conservatism was the philosophy of establishment o Edmond burke o Believe in order, stability, the wisdom of history o No appeal from liberalism o The powerful had a responsibility to those in the lower classes because they believe society is an organic whole o Early conservatives believed that state involvement was not a bad thing o Evolved to grudgingly accept state intervention o Thatcher and Reagan are now believed to be conservative but would once have been liberals in England  Socialism has roots in social and working conditions o Karl Marx is the prominent political philosopher o Liberal party displaced as workers found their voice o Conditions of the great depression led to the cooperative commonwealth federation (predecessor to NDP) o Modified its position to Social Democratic party o Social democracy has accommodated itself to capitalist countries o Reducing income and equality cannot be done without the support of businesses  Safe to say that liberalism, conservatism, and socialism do not differ dramatically. All want a healthy private sector, all see the need for social safety and all believe in gender equality and have the same attitude towards the environment th Lecture 4: (June 27 ) Base points  Leftovers – parties/ideologies  Three branches of government Evaluations:  30% midterm  20% Classroom o 10% Peer assessment o 10% professor grading  50% final Parties  All three parties are together on the Canadian economy  However, they accommodate themselves to realities and the general interests of voters  They take stands and stand for certain things on occaision, Ideologies (cont)  The previous ideologies seem to be moving out and new ones moving in  Aboriginals, and Quebecers gravitate towards nationalism o Can be nasty if its ethnically fixed o Francophones define their nationalism as Civic nationalism referring to its diversity and pride in Quebec o Can be a protective force for many people, defensive for the aboriginals which pertains to the survival of the group when threatened  The Bloc Quebecois is the only nationalist party  Environmentalism o Canadians who side with them often find the political parties to have less to offer o And highly value the preservation of the environment  Feminism o Women who argue that the ails of society lay in patriarchy and male dominance and oppression of women for a long time o Idea is to equalise relationships between men and women  In order to be an engaged Canadian, one must develop an ideology yet you must not hold onto it so tightly that you lose perception of reality  The liberals and conservatives have a few issues on which they are firm o Otherwise they try to appeal broadly to all Canadians  Civic republicanism o The ideology that embraces political participation. That is its motivation o Civic virtue or the good citizen. Taking his or her civic responsibilities seriously o J. Ajzenstat and Peter Brown argue that it is more prominent that thought societies depend on active engaged citizens o No party in particular but threads of it remain in current parties policies  Issues distinguishing political parties o Where they stand on Canadian federalism o Relations between the federal and provincial governments o Trudeau stood for a federal government to govern the entire nation and a devout leader o Mulroney believes in strong provincial governments, and brought in amendments to strengthen provincial governments o The NDP wanted a strong central government as they thought it was the only way to equalise wealth and power. Only way to get the economy out of difficult circumstances Parties: Functions (Important)  From the work of John Meisel 1. To integrate citizens into the political system and provide a mechanism for political engagement a. These links to central govt can help them to become engaged (call, e-mail) b. To develop policy, to encourage thinking on political ideas and turn those ideas into doable policies 2. All parties have policy conventions where members meet and write resolutions, and they are discussed and debated profoundly, then voted upon. If the party makes it to office, they are implemented 3. To represent certain interests or groups a. NDP – labour b. Green – Environment c. Conservatives – Small businesses d. Liberals 4. To form a government 5. Elite recruitment – job of finding potential ministers and Prime ministers 6. Structuring the vote a. People from certain parties voting for representatives of those parties b. Filter in the best candidates 7. Organize, shape, and arouse public opinion a. When issues emerge, there is discussion and the parties take position b. Aspect of the issues are simplified and clarified c. Public opinion begins to take shape behind the parties 8. For interest aggregation a. Many interests out there (political goals and objectives) b. They must be assembled and made sense of them, and reconciled those that differ Parties: Dysfunctions 1. The neglect of the policy function a. Most important ideas have emerged from outside political parties (think tanks, interest groups, media are where idea emerged) b. Vote getting, money raising machines 2. The institutionalising of confrontation a. The assumption appears to be that the adversarial system is the only way to conduct business in parliament b. The closer we get to election, the more intense the confrontation 3. The limiting of political discourse a. The exaggerated partisanship doesn’t allow for creative compromises, nuance, or agreement. My way or the highway b. The underlining of legitimacy – then citizens will see you as a constant degrading or each other 4. The tendency to seep issues under the rug a. Especially when they are really sensitive (the issues of the senate) 5. The attenuation of public philosophy a. Parties seek to serve 2 interests (the national interest, and various specific interests) b. Parties have neglected the development of policies serving the national interests in favour of those that serve the specific interests of regions Organization  The head of a party has been elected by the members of the party and sits in the house of commons  Separate from the elected representative and do the work to keep the party functioning  President of a party and a range of officials that fundraise, do membership development, put on conferences  Each riding in a country work to try to encourage support o Often assert themselves in policy work o To become a candidate one must buy a membership then declare your intention and sell memberships in a hope to garner votes  Issues: o Here in Canada a federal wing of a party is often separate than the provincial wing o The liberal party of Quebec may take a very different view than the federal liberal party o How leaders are chosen  A leadership convention of local delegates where they would vote for their leaders  All three parties now have a 1-person 1-vote to ensure broader dissipation in the selection of leaders o Removing leaders is less elegant when one loses too many elections  If a leader obtains less than 80% of the vote he should quit Party systems:  Referring to the features of parties collectively  Characteristics as parties as a whole and over time  You would look at the number of parties, their size and strength, the number of issues on which they compete, the policy differences that separate them, and their willingness to work together  Evolution provoking factor o Change in the electoral system from few to many parties o And governments with more than 2 parties  4 maybe 5 party systems 1. From 1867-1917 = liberals and conservatives  Task: To build a Canadian state. political patronage was a prominent feature of governments  Elections were vigorous contests even though they differed little  The influence of money was pervasive 2. 1917-1957 = time of profound social and political change in Canada  Working class emerges  West emerged  3 new parties were formed (CCF, the PC, social credit party)  Protest parties, and became a threat to the liberals and tories  Eventually they merged  Liberal party formed a coalition with Quebec and the working class t have power for many years  Proffesionalizing and becoming sophistication 3. 1963-1993 =  Liberal party was dominant  Kind of liberal-social-democratic consensus  Parties took advantage of media, became media-savy,  The provincial governments became more assertive (QC but not only)  Challenging govts authority and demanding more autonomy 4. 1993-  Momentous federal election as it followed the free trade debate and Mulroney’s attempts at constitutional reform  The PC’s collapsed and created the reform party and Bloc Quebecois  Shortly after the 92 referendum and defeated the Tories reform effort  5. 2001-  Progressive conservatives no longer exist at the federal level 3 branches of government:  Executive branch o Implements and manages  Legislative branch o Represents people and approves the executive branches activities  Judicial branch o Makes sure that the activites of the former two branches are legal and constitutional Executive 2 types: The parliamentary type o Parliamentary monarchies (Canada) o Parliamentary democracies (Germany, Israel) o Prime minister indirectly chose o Only head of government and not state o Both prime minister and cabinet are accountable to legislative branch o Prime minister has considerable control over MP o PM, Cabinet, Bureaucracy, and The Crown  The Core executive: All those organizations and procedures which coordinate govt policies and arbitrate conflict within the executive  As democratic gov’t took over, many crown-owned powers fell to the Prime minister  The crown once served a unified function. It is a weak view now and that the crown should be abolished  Both federally and provincially, the first minister and cabinet are the heart of the government  Neither prime minister or cabinet are in the constitution but are there due to constitutional convention: Not politically binding but considered legitimate  Prime Minister’s powers and responsibilities o Appoint the cabinet (first major task)  Competence and expertise do not always matter  Gender, who you are, background, where you’re from matter more o Judges of high courts o Senior bureaucrats o Senators o Ambassadors o Chairs cabinet meetings and sets government agenda o Authority to discipline MP’s o Final say on candidates o Responsible for conduct of foreign policy o Authority to dissolve parliament and call election o Party leader and responsible for health of his political party o Final suitor  Has a large staff as of the PMO (100+ people), Partisan staff  The Privy Council office. Also very large and non-partisan. All bureaucrats and the best of them, provide a source of advice to the PM  22 PMs including harper o Longest serving was \Mackenzie King (22 years) o 13 from Tories, 9 from liberals o 5 from Quebec and a third of Canada’s history o Ontarians a little over a third o No limits on in-office length  Problem with Chretien and Thatcher has to do with the treating of back-benchers : member of parliament who is new and inexperienced with little power  Cannot afford to overrule ministers too often o They have their own supporters  Historically, PMs have tried to well-represent each province (1 Per province)  Ministers job o Advising PM o Developing policy o Running a debt o All equal but some are more powerful (finance, Foreign affairs)  Rules o Collective Ministerial responsibility (must defend decisions)  Support the decisions  Cabinet secrecy is supreme o Individual ministerial responsibility  Take responsibility for the actions of his department  Multiple committees/Central agencies o The treasury board – approve department spending o Dept of finance o PCO o PMO  Donald Savoie has written on the executive and argues that power has shifted from ministers towards the PMO and a tight group of advisors  PMO takes over for in-trouble Cabinet ministers  Reasons for Power shift: o The national unity file is in the PM’s hands o International issues favourite by PM o High MP turnover  Very few develop expertise or a network  To improve the democracy - White o Enhance the role of legislative branch o Increase # of MP o Strengthen committees o More services and support for MPs o And principle of party discipline be relaxed o Fixed election dates to take power form the PM o Enhance caucus control of party leaders o Reduce the power of party leaders to appoint candidates and control party constituency organizations o DiGiacomo: Give the HOC and Senate the power to approve or disapprove international agreements The presidential type o President is directly elected by the voters o Both head of state and head of government o Cabinet member do not have to be from the legislative branch o More easily collapsed into dictatorships o President have very little control over legislators Lecture 5: (July 2 ) Base points  5 characteristics  Constitution  Discussion groups The 5 characteristics of the economy  Market based capitalist society o In such an economy, enormous savings of wealth are possible o People and companies that are indescribably wealthy o Rival governments and countries with their wealth o Wal-Mart is the 6 largest economy in the world  Consequence: Governments listen to these individuals  It is a fact of life that governments will attempt to attract investments from these companies o This influence impacts on democratic decision making  Dependence on resource extraction o In Canada, resource extraction, conservation, and processing is purely provincial o Ottawa controls taxation, exports, trade, and the environment o The aboriginals have more say over their lands than the federal government  They sit on vast resources (oil, ores)  Substantial foreign ownership o How and why have we let foreigners dominate our economy o Extra-territoriality: One governments laws have effect beyond its borders  Infringement on sovereignty o The accomplishment of national economic goals o Subsidiaries are often restricted by their parent companies  Ford Canada Cannot export, or do R&D  Foreign trade o 3/4 of our trade to the US and most of that within companies o Flow of people, investment capital, services  Large amount of state involvement o Separates one party form another o Liberal and social parties favour one kind of state involvement, while conservatives favour a different kind The constitution  The basic law of the land or any organization  A set of binding norms and principles that regulate the legitimate exercise of political power  4 purposes**** o Establish institutions of governments and set out their powers o Establish the processes by which laws may be made and interpreted o Establish restrictions on the power of government over citizens o Expresses the shared values of society  If a law is found to be inconsistent with the constitution, Judges will declare it invalid  IF done badly the constitution will give rise to serious divisions within the country  It is very difficult to change or amend the constitution, some countries even require a vote  Drafting a constitution is an extremely difficult task o Can take years to create one with widespread citizen support  Modern constitutions needs to address a range of issues o A preamble which outlines the basic principles of the constitution, affirms the supremacy of the constitution, declares the state’s sovereignty, o The structure of the state, sets out whether the state is a federation, confederation, or a unitary state  Sets out provinces and what powers they may have o Must set out the type of executive they will have  Presidential or parliamentary o Sets out whether the legislative assembly will be bi o Set out the role of the judiciary and the structure of the judiciary  And affirm its independence o Set out a type of electoral system o Set out the powers of the central bank o Enumerate the rights to be guaranteed to citizens  Rights of groups within society (Aboriginals, Gays) o Women’s rights will have a particular place in the constitution o Explain how the state and religion relate to each other o Role of the military o How to change/amend the constitution in the event that things need to be included, excluded, or altered Constitutional conventions  Unwritten norm of behaviour or practice that is not legally binding but is widely accepted as being valid, if it is not obeyed elites get upset o The governor general cannot really stop legislation Constitutions are generally in a constant state of evolution and changed in two ways  They are continuously amended o Insertion of charter of rights  Input of a judicial decision o Challenged before courts, which they will recommend a change in a specific location Amendments  During the 50’s Maurice Duplesis fell from power and the Catholic church’s power was lessened  The Quebec state, was a non-interventionalist state  Nationalism was a defensive, ethnic nationalism that centered around protecting farm/church life  Francophones were largely absent of the Federal public service The 1960’s  Quiet revolution  So much social and economic revolution was passed  Making Quebec a player in Canadian Economic 1980  First Quebec referendum was held  Quebec stayed a part of Canada thanks to a 60-40 vote  Hugely complex and difficult negotiations  Felt the the decision would restrict the autonomy of the Quebec government  After fruitless negotiations, Trudeau threatened to  Brought the issue to court o Patriation reference  Submit legislation to the court to determine if the legislation is indeed constitutional o Constitutional convention that required substantial provincial consent th Lecture 6: (July 9 ) Base points  Speaker  The Public Bureaucracy  Legislative/Judicial branches  Discussion  Peer Assignment Media and politics  One of the shaping factors is the Political wave phenomenon : Issues that the govt/state wil emphasize over and over again to the point where the media becomes a surgeon looking for stories part of this political wave Public bureaucracy  Is included within the executive, formally speaking  Referring to the people who implement public policies of Cabinet  In our Gov’t system, the cabinet is in charge of the public bureaucracy – yet they the cabinet are a partisan group  Distinguished from private sector firms and enterprises and third sector co-ops, charitable non- profit organizations  The Minister is in charge of a department, below him is a deputy minister (he is art of the bureaucracy)  Roughly 3.5 million people in the Canadian Bureaucracy 3 types of govt structure:  The government department (Labour, justice, foreign affairs) o Headed by a minister, managed by bureaucrats o The deputy minister is non-partisan o Appointed by the PM o Department is on a pyramidal basis o Assistant deputy minister (3-4), Director General (4-5) o Department workhorses o Functions  Develop policy,  administer program,  research and analysis,  liase with other govt departments and groups The crown agency  Does not function like a service deliver The crown corporation  CBC, Via rail, Canada post  Operate at government arm’s length  Combine 2 types of goals o Profit making goals o Service public policy bill  Report to parliament through a minister Issues with bureaucracy  Merit system and representativeness of public servant o Emerged after decades of political pilgrimage o Abolished when bad people got the job o People hired or promoted based on their qualifications o Problem: May not get a public service that reflects the intentions of the society  Degree of democratic control of bureaucracy o 4 ways the bureaucracy may undermine bureaucracy  Unrepresentative of society  When controlled by a narrowly based group with large control over the bureaucracy  Ministers are too-often shifted around = expertise with the bureaucrats only  Temptation of bureaucrats to expand their offices to increase their influence over government, no public policy goal o Advantages  Agencies and whistleblowing legislation to report foul practices  House of commons committees keep tabs on bureaucrats  Court system can be accessed  Federal court/ federal court of appeal  The media and public service unions pounce on wrong-doing  Kind of policy instrument that the bureaucracy will recommend o Essentially 9 policy categories of instrument o By order of intrusiveness  Doing nothing (hope it disappears)  Take symbolic action (issue statement, set up investigatory committee, express public concern)  Use the public platform and exhort people to do something  The tax expenditure (deductions or credits)  Spend money on particular programs  Legislation and regulation  Impose a tax  Create a govt corporation (take responsibility for particular issues)  Declare state of emergency (depending on problem)  Relationship between senior public servants and advocacy groups o Bureaucrats may move into private corporations, well-paying advocacy groups o Raises suspicions about what the bureaucrats were thinking when dealing with those corporations or groups  Relationship with them  In the public interest? Or their own interest? Branches Legislative  Federal level (House of commons, Senate)  Provincial level (Legislative assembly, national assembly)  Functions o Representation of the people o Passing of legislation o Scrutiny by members o Recruitment function (Cabinet from the house) o Law making function o Finances government, and approves spending o Political education  Educate the public  Hear back from citizens o Hold govt accountable Parliamentary supremacy: Make or unmake any law it wish
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