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Canadian Politics Notes

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University of Ottawa
Political Science

Canadian Politics 110107 1221 AMOne of four main fields of study in Political ScienceNormative PoliticsoTend to ask the big questions in politicsInternational RelationsoUsed to be warpeaceoNow includes things such asEnvironmentTradeHealthPeace keepingHuman RightsComparative PoliticsCanadian PoliticsoSame thing as comparative politics but because we live inCanada it is branded as unique All countries do the same thingWhere does the theme of Canadian politics come fromoPeople who studied Canadian politics were mostly done by constitutional lawyersoHow the house of commons worksoHow the senate workedoInfluence of the CrownoSociety however was mostly ignoredStudied the hardware not the people involvedoIn the 80s and 90s there were a lot of constitutional changes in CanadaThis generated a lot of articles for studyoPrior to the 70s Aboriginal Politics was basically ignored but of late have been a huge factor in Canadian politicsoRelationships between the Federal government and Provincial governmentStudy of provincial politics is now acquiring greater and greater importanceoComparative studies in Canadian PoliticsAsk why we are or why we arent doing something the same was another countryOr provincially rather than nationallyThe Evolution of State in Canada 110107 1221 AMHistory of CanadaFrance and Britain colonized Canada in the 1500s and 1600sPrior to their arrival was occupied by Aboriginal peopleThe colonists and the aboriginals fought sporadically mostly in Quebec and Ontario for nearly 200 years1713 Treaty of UtrechtoBritain gained control of Nova Scotia and Newfoundland7 Year War between France and Britaino1759 Battle of the Plains of Abrahamo1763 Treaty of ParisBritain acquiredoQuebecoPEIoNew BrunswickThis treaty limited how much land France still had in Canada to the two islands of Saint Pierre and MiquelonoRoyal Proclamation of 1763 was created by the then British Colony of QuebecoDespite being English and Catholic they did not impose or force the French speaking Protestants to use their ideologies1774 Quebec ActoNo elected assembly however established a council to advise the Governor of the ColonyThis came after the Americans Declared Independence from British RuleFrench Canada remained officially neutral during this dispute and thus many loyal to Britain Americans decided to move to the British controlled Ontario and New Brunswick1791Constitutional ActoThis Act divided the Colony in twoUpper CanadaoAlmost exclusively EnglishoThe so called executive council eventually evolved into the SenateLower CanadaoThis was in part to thank the French for not joining the American RevolutionoEach of the Canadas had their own governor elective council legislative assemblies and locally elected councilBy 1791 the colonies had achieved representative government not to be confused with Responsible GovernmentoFigure 21 Page 29The problem was that although the officials were elected they had no real powerThe Governor appointed the Executive Council so the Legislative Council and Assembly had no real control in Canada1837 rebellions broke out in both Upper and Lower Canada in debate as to whether or not the system in Canada should be redone to allow for responsible government1839 The Durham Report suggested that responsible government should be implemented in regards to local affairs so that the executive branch would be able to govern only as long as it retained confidence of the elected assemblyoHe also outlines a division of power between the local and the imperial authorities such that in local matters the governor would follow the advice of the colonial authorities but in matters of imperial concern he or she would be an Agent of the British GovernmentNew Brunswick and the colony of Canada got responsible government in 1848 an 1851 for Prince Edward Island1840 Act of Union merge Upper and Lower Canada under the suggestion of Lord Durham and for this reason is hated by many French CanadiansAs every province joined Canada they all received responsible government and to this day is still used in CanadaThe Road to ConfederationAfter achieving responsible government the colonies were interested in uniting There were several main factors as to whyEconomicoBritain was no longer trading with the coloniesoA reciprocity treaty with the US had expiredoThe colonies wanted to establish a free trade area within their own bordersSince it was mostly Maritime Quebec Ontario and British Columbia there was a lot of distance between the lands The idea of a railroad across Canada would be invaluable to everyonePoliticaloThere were continued deadlocks between East French and West English Canada and public decisions needed to be made in one large combined placeoConfederation would allow for greater autonomy and would allow the colonies to deal with issues on their ownMilitaryoThere was a very large military that had already won a war just to the south of CanadaoThe British government was no longer interested in defending CanadaoBy joining together Canada could sustain an army capable ofdefending their own land
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