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POL2101 classnotes part2.docx

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Political Science
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Nov 1 2012 DGDAaronQuestion how do u interpretat working in the public engagement for so long What is your role in your country i have a role as a political actor in Canada and I have to play itNov 6 2012Electriol system how the vote that ppl cast get translated into seats Lary johsnton from votes to seats on the library websiteElectriale systems are difined aas the system in which the votes ppl cast are translated into the representations of political parties in the legislative assembly Some of these systems are somewat complex Should know the features and principles Every contry that allows the ppl to vote uses a electrol system They are important More in more research has gone into electrical systems and their effect They are more important than we thought They also have social and political impacts The system we use in Canada is not good for national unity and natoinal solidarity The system to unit the country dos more to fracture The results of the system dos not actually represent the views of the ppl Our democracy has clrealy suffured Some systems are more advanced then others Those who work in and for give a lot of thought on whjich electial system to use Some facilitate conflict resolution and other worship relationaship between communities In Canada this has been an ecademic debat for a while In BC and PIE referenda held tochange the system it has been defeded In QB there has been an in dept study Number of politician from NDP and liberals and green party have spoke about system reform but not actions have come4 types of systems 1plurality system 2 majoritarian system 3 proportional representation system 4 mixed systems Not everyone uses these classification Political science who study system look for 3 arrangements of systems in order to makes some assessments 1 district magnitude Refers to the number of reps that are elected from each constituency 2Ballot type or ballot structure Refers to whether the ballot makes u chose one or the other or whether u can rank ur preferences Have to make one choice or rank them 3 electoral formula Refers to how the winner is determined In some cases it is very similar In others its more complex To determine which of the 4 types are appropriate u need to have some sort are assessment criteria that u can use to make a judgement In ON the legislator identifies 9 criteria some are clear some arent 1 simplicity ppl should be able to understand how it works 2 legitimacy the electors should have confidence in the system ppl should think that the electoral process accords their will with the political valuesThey have to believe it to be legitimate 3 strong voter participation should promote voter engagement elections should be accessible and meaningful 4 accountability voters should be able to throw the rascals out if they dont deliver know who to account who to blame if something goes wrong limit the party leaders to chose candidates The plurality system seems to be effective 5 voter choice the system should promote voter choice in term of quality and quantity in options for voters some systems promote voters choice some not 6 fairness of representation the legislator should reflect the population of the jurisdiction for proportionality to represent the population Parliament should be a mirror of the population All regions ideology religion ethnics gender should be represented 7 stable and effective gov Dos not depend on the electrole system but the sysmte shouldnt be responsible for for instability 8 effective parliaments Electrola system should ensure a strong opposition is in place Parliemtn and opposition to fulfil their role 9 efeective political parties Related to oters choice Electrol system should encourage strong partys have policy proposal and speak in conditions Some groups n scallors emphasis that the electoral systems has inter ethnic reconciliation or tolorence Donald Horowitz seys there ways to divide the ethnics to seek votes amongs other communitess Feelstaht this will foster conciliatory behavuior on the parte of politicians Dont need to know the details of the types just basic principles plurality system 2 majoritarian system 3 proportional representation system 4 mixed systems1 Plurality system only has one type FPTP SMP First past the post Single member plurality Simplest of the 4 systems In terms of district theres only onf member In terms of ballot type theres categorical In terms of electoral formulor the winner is determined by the one who gets the most votes Most the voters in the world live under this system Advenatge asimpls errbody understand direct and clear link between the vote and the result Ppl will kno who their representative will be accountable to those votes FTPT allows individual representative to incount in their actions n inactions Provides and incentive in the constituency service Because u can identify ur member u provid the person with the concenttitve that hes agood Mpb majority gov c the FTPT encourage broadly based political parties G excludes extremist parties Problem in this system the number of seats that the party gets donts not correspond withthe proportional with the votes partys get In terms of our 9 criteria this system scores well on accountable n stable and effective gov but weak on fairness and voters choice National unity problem Some provinces to poorly in terms of setas but do well in terms of votes 2 majoritarian system has 2 types alternative vote and the 2 round system or the runoff system A Alternative vote system similar to SMP but in rder to win canadaite needs more then 50 of the votes The Ballot type is called preferiencial or ordinal voters can rank their preference When the votes are counted in the canadidate wins the majority of the votes theyr declared the winer if not majority then last place finisher and droped from the account the voters second preferences are given to th other candidates This system is not widely used Australia this system have recommendaded for societies in deep ethnic communites to reach out in all ethinic communities in order to get the majority B 2 round or runoff bsed on the same principle s A but operationalised in deff manner If a candidate dosnt win the majority a second vote will be held Ex france With the 9 criteria they score well on legitimacy accountability and stable and effective gov Weak on fairness representation dosnt do well in proportionality Prof thinks alternative is a good system and should be used more Has the support of the scollar D Horowitz Advantage increases the legitimacy and minimise the dis porportinaly issues 3 proportional representation link s theof seats a party gets iwth theof the votes a party gets 40 of the votes40 of the seats won Types listPR and Single transferable vote STV Nov 8 2012 2 Majoritarian system 2 types alternative vote similar to wat we use ppl can rank their candidates winner is the one who get 50 or more 2 round system only 2 elections are held Top 2 do another election 2 weeks later for round 2 proportional representation system3seeks to have theof votes u get and seat u get in alignment 2 main types a list pr popular system B single transferable vote A each political party presents a list of candidates determined by the party ordervoters chose the party not
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