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POL2101 Key terms after midterm.docx

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Political Science
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Bureaucracy A system of government in which most of the important decisions are made by state officials rather than by elected representativesA state or organization governed or managed according to such a systemRule by offices A formal organization marked by a clear hierarchy of authority the existence of written rules of procedure staffed by fulltime salaried officials and striving for the efficient attainment of organizational goals Bureaucrat public servants who execute the will of the peoples elected representativesInclude government departments Crown corporations and administrativePolicy communityNumerous interest groups in a specific policy sectorParliamentary governmentPolicy CommunitiesLoose communities that form for the purpose of shaping public policy taking the form of discrete and specialized clusters of government departments and agencies advocacy groups politicians corporations and interested individualsBeing part of a policy community means that a group is part of the flow of informationLobbying Any organized attempt to influence the authorities now often performed by professional lobbyist firmsRegulation of lobbying in Canada Only started in 1988 Must be registered and include name of client who is being lobbied and object of lobbying within Ten days of being hiredMuch lobbying is not being recordedFederal Accountability Act in 2006Federal level 4 5444 registered lobbyists 2009Examples of large firms Global Public Affairs Shell Canada Vale Inco Canadian Association of Petroleum ProducersHill and Knowlton Bell Canada Merck Frosst Talisman EnergyEarnscliffe Strategy Group Microsoft GM CIBC EnCananaExamples of former politiciansadvisers working for lobbying firms Lorne Nystrom NDP now with Global Public AffairsDon Boudria LPC David Colenette LPC Ian Brodie CP now with Hill and KnowltonRobin V Sears NDP now with Earnscliffe Voter turnoutVoter turnout is the percentage of eligible voters who cast a ballot in an election The following presents voter turnout figures for Canadas general elections as compiled by Elections CanadaThe median voter turnout for Canadas general elections since 1867 has been 703The average voter turnout for Canadas general elections since 1867 has been 707The highest voter turnouts were in 1958 1962 and 1963 when voter turnout was over 79The lowest voter turnout on record was in 2008 when voter turnout fell to only 588Voter turnout in the most recent election at 614 was the third lowest in Canadian historyWhen low turnout is a reflection of disenchantment or indifference the election may not be an accurate reflection of the will of the people Low turnouts can lead to unequal representation among various parts of the population In developed countries nonvoters tend to be concentrated in particular demographic and socioeconomic groups especially the young and the poorUnconventional protest in Canada Political activities that are not channeled through formal channelsModerate protestDirect actionViolenceExplaining the rise of protest activities read NevittePostindustrialism and postmaterialismDecline of deferenceInterest groups in CanadaThe term interest group refers to virtually any voluntary association that seeks to publicly promote and create advantages for its cause It applies to a vast array of diverse organizations This includes corporations charitable organizations civil rights groups neighborhood associations professional and trade associationsInterest groups a group of people who have joined together to pursue common interests and to try to influence the making and implementation of the laws and policies of a political community Types of interest groupsInstitutionalIssueorientedFactors influencing the organization of interest groups in Canada and creationLanguage Federalism The state interest Peak associationsSome interest groups consist of individuals such as ranchers or fruit growers who may form farm commodity organizations In other instances an interest group consists not of individuals but of organizations or businesses such as the Histadrut General Federation of Labour in Israel and the AndeanAmazon Working Group which includes environmental and indigenous organizations in several South American countries These types of organizations are called peak associations as they are in effect the major groups in their area of interest in a countrySocial movements in CanadaA network of groups and individuals that seeks major social and political changes particularly by acting outside of established political institutionsPolitical partiesAny political group that presents at election and is capable of placing through elections candidates for public officeTypes of political partiesCadre vs mass parties Ideological vs catchall
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