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Politics Final Study Guide.docx

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University of Ottawa
Political Science

PoliticsFinalStudyGuideCosmopolitan Ethicscontrast with consequentialist and communitarian ethicsCosmopolitan oHumanity is a single moral community with some rules that apply to all equallySingle moral community takes moral priority over nationalsubnational communitiesSome rules are obligatory because they are inherently right deontological viewDoes not require world stateBecause universal morality makes national political borders morally irrelevantEmphasize both positive and negative duties oKants categorical imperativeFor a rational being to act morally it must act according to universal lawsPeople should be treated ends in themselves Equal moral standing of all peopleExtend moral obligations to institutional and legal structures of global governanceConsequentialist oJudge actions by the desirability of their outcomesUtilitarianism the greatest good of the greatest numberRealismJudges a statespersons actions as right or wrong depending on whether they serve states interestInternational anarchy and sovereignty mean that only viable ethics are those of selfinterest and survivalouniversal morality is selfinterest in disguise Focus of state actions should be on strategic outcomes not moral considerationsCritiquesoOpportunistic nearly anything could be morally justifiedoCreates false dilemma between survival and destruction other options availableCommunitarianism anticosmopolitanismoArgue national boundaries provide important ethical constraintsoRealismrealists argue that necessity demands a statist ethics restricting moral obligations to the nationstate Same as aboveoPluralism pluralism is an ethics of coexistence based on sovereingtyAnarchy does not prevent states from agreeing to minimal core of standards for coexistence Morality is however particular to local cultures times and placesDifferent cultures have own ethics and its impossible to claim access to one single account of moralitySingle universal morality is a cultural product with no global legitimacyLinklaters 3 categories of do no harmdefine and explain in contextCosmopolitans emphasize extensive positive justice and aid and negative nonharming duties across bordersAnticosmos argue that compatriot priority means that we have only limited largely negative duties to those outside our own communityLinklaters 3 categories of negative duties do no harm1Bilateral relationships
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