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POL2108 John Locke Notes.pdf

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Political Science
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John LockSecond Treatise of GovernmentBackground 1600s exclusion crisis Locke writes during a time of British political turmoil Locke is a wig who are not friends of King CharlesKing is apprehensive of Locke does everything he can to exclude them from positions of power for example by executing them for treason When King Charles dies Catholic King James II takes overhis wife gives birth to son this is worrisome for populace who do not want a Catholic King He is forced to leave the throne replaced by William and Mary of Orange orchestrated by ParliamentParliament retains their control over politics permanently which leads to the Glorious revolution Interestingly Locke writes about the inherent right of everyone to take up arms against an unwantedtyrannical King His text is a means to give as much legitimacy as possible for William and Mary and attempts to convince as many readers as possible that the new powers possessed by Parliament is legitimate and for the greater good pg 5 Locke does believe that he has a fullfledged political theory to offer the realm of political knowledgeFirst Treatise An answer to Robert Filmer a man who defended absolute monarchy and divine rights of Kingsessentially PR work on behalf of the Tories Lock attacks Filmers belief that political power is the same as paternal power absolute and cannot be challengedLocke argues absolutism is completely illegitimate His argument consists of comparison between families and kingdomsLocke p 31 paternal power is not absolute mother also has power also only temporary power Filmer believes that we not born equal Locke argues when come of age of 21 paternal authority endsson and father are indisputable equalsChildren still always must respect their parents youth always have at least one reason to always respect parents inheritance of estate p 36 Concern with money helps raise morals The authority of all Kings on earth is derived from Adam or first rulerLockes State of Nature Chapters 2 3 9 In order to understand how government is established we must analyze the state of men without government anarchy largely a giant thought experiment called the state of nature Strip men of all the institutions of civil society and analyze their behaviour described on pg 8 1 Men are by nature perfectly free absolute freedom and liberty Hobbes 2 SON is a state of perfect equality Hobbes 3 SON is a state of liberty but n
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