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Federalism POL3174 Course Notes.docx

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Lecture 12February 28th 2013Federalism in IraqLeyla Ozden 3 former provinces of ottoman empire 19411958 7903reign of Saddam Hussein coalition of willing US no democratic experience per se in Iraq new era began with interim gvt put term of federalism in new constitution Iraq ethnically less mixed than beforeShiites 60 of population in favour of federalism accepted adding term federalism into constitution moving south for trade Kurds have always demanded autonomy in north of Iraq successful riots against state been suppressed within Iraq most settled advocates if federalism in Iraq logical continuation of their autonomy from the 90s no trust towards Sunnis ans Shiites Kurds in Turkey Syria Iran and Iraq Great Kurdistan Turkey biggest foreign investor in Kurdistan region Sunnis hostile reactions towards federalism strong central power Sunnis afraid fear of declaration of independence such strong economic ties to other Iraq populations 2011 Sunnis provinces referendum no basic consensus on federalism in Iraq article 1 of constitution declares Iraq as a federal state no fixed structure ethnic versus administrative federalism unstable political situation creates difficulties in getting foreign investors for oil oil and gas belongs to all inhabitants of IraqKurdsno compromise Kirkuk is heart of Kurdistan area where their oil fields are located big open questions in Iraq disputed areas control of power federalism on unstable fundamentals question of Kirkuk ethnic disputes borders set in 1923 holding together Iraq Kurds only area in Iraq with security and orderLecture 13March 4th 20131Constitutionmaking and change in federationsThe issue of legitimacyThe issue of efficiency New federations and old federationsThe case of the European Union 2Institutional changeUnderstanding institutional change in federations why does change occur and how does it occur 3 Federalism and democratic empowermentAre there authoritarian federations12 Making and changing constitutions federalism used to manage diversity how do we make a federal constitution tension between legitimacy and efficiency crafted and later adapted to social and cultural and ethnic reality if CAN constitution hadnt changed would be out of sync with the reality of CAN situation we havent had many constitutional changesreforms constitutional framework hard to change in CAN involves almost looking away from documents thingsstated in BNA act have been reinterpreted by courts most federations reform constitutions to adapt to ongoing changes to what extent is this a problem or not a problem we state things quite broadly in CAN see how things become interpreted should be more precise
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