Study Guides (248,605)
Canada (121,634)
POL3371 (7)

Midterm Overview

9 Pages

Political Science
Course Code
Ivan Katchanovski

This preview shows pages 1,2 and half of page 3. Sign up to view the full 9 pages of the document.
MIDTERM OVERVIEW  Questions • multiple choice (theoretical – different types of variables) • SPSS based (Chi-square, Crosstab)  Based on content of the first half of the course  Lectures • PowerPoint summaries on Blackboard • Required textbook • SPSS REVIEW Concepts: ideas or constructs that represent real world phenomena Variables: Provide measurement of concepts (SPSS - different values. Ex: Democratic = 1, Non- democratic = 2) • Types of variables o Nominal - variable that cannot be ranked higher to lower in contrast to other variables Ex: gender, political party affiliation, etc. o Ordinal - variable we can rank/order along some dimension but cannot find the average value. Ex: education (high school, university, post-graduate), socioeconomic status (high, medium, low) o Interval-ratio - variable we can rank/ordered with equal distances between values. Ex:Age (years), income ($) SPSS – Data Editor Mode used for viewing, entering and editing data  Data view – enter variable 1 [V1] name  Go to variable view, under values (appropriate a value to each label) Ex: 1 = female, 2 = male, 9999 = NA(missing value)  Output – each column represents a variable, each row represents a case Finding a Variable o Edit  find (Ex: Trust = V23 – most people can be trusted) o Analyze Descriptive statistics  Frequencies o Type of variable: Ordinal o For percent of people who answered question “Most people can be trusted” look under Valid Percent (excludes missing values) – Mode value – need to be very careful (most occurring). Median (50%) – need to be very careful. Inferential statistics: hypothesis testing and making inferences about the data Descriptive statistics: describes and summarizes data  Frequency distribution: percentage distribution of the variable of interest SPSSAnalyze  Descriptive statistics  Frequencies (select variables) Frequency Graphs/Charts  Bar chart: nominal and ordinal variables  Pie chart: nominal and ordinal variables with small number of values (categories)  Histogram: interval/ratio variables with large number of values o SPSSAnalyze  Descriptive Statistics  Frequencies  Graphs (select variable and appropriate chart) *select value percent  Measures of Central Tendency o Mode – number that appears most often in a dataset o Median – middle value (ordinal & interval-ratio variables) o Mean – average value SPSS Find mode/median/mean Analyze Descriptive StatistcFrequencies (select variable or variaStatistics (select mode/median/mean – depending on variable type) *unselect display frequency table SPSS Find mean and/or measures of variability/dispersion Analyze Descriptive Statistics  Descriptives (select variable from the list and appropriate measures from Options) Standardized/Structured Interviews and Questionnaires • Used in survey research – standard method of asking questions and the recording answers Ex: age, gender, other variables relevant to survey o Reduce error due to interviewer variability o The characteristics of the interviewer may influence the responses given  Questionnaires o List of survey questions and answers o Used to administer surveys (interview schedule) o Helpful in analyzing survey data Coding: transforming a measure into numbers  Ex: Measuring confidence in the government - respondents who say High = 4, Medium = 3, Low = 2, None = 1 Conducting Interviews: Basic Points  Questions should be asked exactly as stated (small changes makes a big difference)  Answers should be recorded as exactly as possible  Questions should be asked in the order they are given on the interview schedule  Close-ended questions – Yes/No  Open-ended questions – Long answers – more difficult to translate into code Telephone Surveys  Interviews by telephone o Cheaper and quicker to administer o Many people in many countries do not have telephones o They usually cannot exceed about 30 minutes  Problems: o Many people have cell phones that are not listed o Only certain people are likely to complete the survey (older women) Online Surveys  Fast and cheap  The interview does not have to be transcribed  High dropout rate  Many people in many countries do not have Internet access  Common way to get more participants: -give incentives (prize) Face-to-Face Surveys o Time-consuming o Costly o More representative than phone or online interviews in many countries o Must gain access to target sample (ex: in a specific classroom) Mail Surveys  Questionnaires sent by mail  No interviewers needed  Relatively expensive  Low response rate in many cases -include envelope with return address already printed Omnibus Surveys and Census  Omnibus surveys (1-2 questions) o Surveys comprised of many small surveys o Researcher can include one or small number of questions into a larger survey o Cheap – approx. cost = $1000/1000 people  Census o Surveys entire population o Very expensive  Examples - some people might not finish the entire survey Respondent Problems in Survey Research  Acquiescence the respondent is just trying to please the researcher  Social desirability: respondents may be reluctant to provide a sincere answer if doing so will make them appear to be unlikeable or a bad person  Laziness or boredom: may prevent a respondent from giving a genuine response – just finish at quickly as possible to earn incentive.  Example: issues with survey research – incentives (none in a census), acquiescence, etc. SPSS Identify variable value (Ex: Canada = 12) o Data  Select cases  If condition is satisfied: V2 = 12 Weighti
More Less
Unlock Document

Only pages 1,2 and half of page 3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.