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FifthLecture German Romanticism.docx

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Political Science
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1German RomanticismIntroduction The CounterRevolution at the beginning of the 19th century manifests itself in three formsWe have a liberal conservative CounterRevolution a Catholic CounterRevolution and last but not least we have a RomanticCounter RevolutionLike the Enlightenment Romanticism is a panEuropean current which begins at the end of the 18th century and reaches its peak around the middle of the 19th century If the Epicenter of the Enlightenment was located in France the epicenter of Romanticism would be located in Germany a country where the main cultural direction throughout the 19th century has been the critique of the Enlightenment In this lecture thwe would get acquainted with the German Romanticism from the end of the 18 century thand the beginning of the 19 century Among the representatives of this current we can include Karl Wilhelm Friedrich Schlegel who was the leader of a group of young poets and philosophers reunited around the review edited by Friedrich Schlegel and his brother August Schlegel called the Athenaeum The group included also Joseph Schelling Franz von Baader Ludwig Tieck Adam Muller and Friedrich Leopold von Hardenberg also known as Novalis However unlike the two other types of CounterRevolution Romanticism proves to be much more ambiguous in as much as Romanticism has not been associated only with the counterrevolutionary mentality but also with the revolutionary projects We shall return o this aspect later For now it is fair to say that in general Romanticism is not a rejection of modernity but an attempt to propose anotherdifferent modernity or to reconcile modernity with tradition To reconcile what modernity has best with what tradition had best Essentially Romanticism is a reaction directed against modern rationalism modern individualism both in its political as well as in it economic expression and modern industrialism Modern rationalism has subverted religious faith and has therefore led to the collapse of the corporate order of the Middle Ages The ideals of the Middle Ages faith chivalry honorhave been replaced with the pursuit of individual interest Subsequently the Christian community of the Middle Ages whose members were all reunited by a common faith a common belonging to the same Body of Christ and a common destiny has been replaced by a market society in which individuals relate to each other only through commercial contractsREIFICATION human relations are transformed more and more into commercial relationsMECCA vs WALLSTREETcommon destiny vs individualismfeeling of belonging vs feeling of alienation Finally the scientific exploitation of nature through industry has destroyed the communion between man and nature and has lead to the growing degradation of the environment and to the replacement of the old harmonious pastoral and agrarian
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