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PSY 1101 Study Guide - Comprehensive Midterm Guide: Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Central Nervous System, Peripheral Nervous System


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY 1101
Professor
Najwa Haddad
Study Guide
Midterm

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uOttawa
PSY1101
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Chapter 1- Thinking Critically with
Psychological Science
Introduction
Psychology: The scientific studies of mind and behavior
oHow we think?
oHow we feel?
oHow we behave?
Psychology is very diverse (large scope)
I. The Need for Psychological Science
A. Why?
oA.1 Limits of Intuition (Misleading)
oA.2 Limits of Common Sense
Doesn’t generate knowledge
Acquired knowledge (i.e. experience)
Hind Sight Bias (I knew it all along phenomenon)
Tendency makes us believe that we could have predicted the conclusion once it is
determined
oA.3 Overconfidence
We tend to be more sure and its accuracy than we should
We tend to over exaggerate and overestimate the accuracy of our
knowledge
We think we are more accurate then we are (particularly experts)
Tetlock: studies experts to see if their claims are true
Most claims are completely false
oA.4 Illusory Correlation
Definition: We tend to see a correlation between two variables when
there is not a relationship
However, they have effects on our emotions, behaviors and cognition
You become more attentive to the information that supports your
belief
You disregard any information that doesn’t supports your belief
oA.5 Perceiving Order in Random Events
We are uncomfortable with randomness and uncertainty
Therefore, we create rules to decrease randomness
B. The Scientific Attitude (BOSCH)
oCuriosity
No science without curiosity (no passion to learn or develop new
knowledge)
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oOpen-Mindedness
Examine a problem from different perspectives
Open to new ideas, particularly contradictory ones to yours
oSkepticism
Demand proof; assess the evidence
oAwareness of our own Biases
We tend to filter our information through our own knowledge
oHumility
Acknowledge other people’s intelligence
Accept mistakes
Ability to change our positions if science prove otherwise
Avoid your ego
C. The Scientific Method
oObservation
What starts as casual observation results in systematic observation
oTheory
Organizes and integrates observation
Hypothetical
oHypothesis Testing
Tentative relationship between two variables
oOperational Definition (I.e. Method)
When testing a hypothesis, all scientific rules must be followed
Variables must be defined
Operational Definition: A very clear, precise statement on how the
variables will be measured
oReplication
Confidence correlates with the replication or results (Accuracy)
oGenerate or Refine (Hypothesis)
II. Types of Research Studies
A. Descriptive Research
oA.1 Purpose
To observe and describe what you observe
oA.2 Case Study
A detailed research design where we study a small group or an individual
Advantages:
Most in-depth research
Allows us to document real-life information
Learning about our own humanity
Disadvantages:
Small sample size (No Generalization)
Research Bias
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