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PSY 1102 Study Guide - Psy, Scale-Invariant Feature Transform, Fluoxetine

Course Code
PSY 1102
Najwa Haddad

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Chapter 15 – Therapy
There has been a transition of brutal treatments to gentler ones for psychological
disorders, thanks to Pinel and Dix.
There are 2 types of mental health treatments: psychotherapy (for learning
related disorders, ex: phobias) and biomedical therapy (for biologically
influenced disorders, ex: schizophrenia).
Electric approach – an approach to psychotherapy that, depending on the clients
problems, uses techniques from various forms of therapy. (Psychotherapy
integration: combine a selection of assorted techniques)
The psychological therapies
Psychotherapy – treatment involving psychological techniques; consists of
interactions between a trained therapist and someone seeking to overcome
psychological difficulties or achieve personal growth.
Psychoanalysis – Sigmund Freuds therapeutic technique. Freud believed that
patients free associations, resistances, dreams, and transferences – and the
therapists interpretations of them – released previously repressed feelings,
allowing the patient to gain self-insight.
This therapy is rarely used today, except his psychodynamic therapies.
Freud believed that psychological problems are fuelled by childhood’s repressed
impulses; he tried to bring these repressed feelings into the patient’s conscious
This theory presumes that less anxious feelings become possible when people
release the energy previously devoted to id-ego-superego conflicts.
This theory emphasizes the formative power of childhood experiences, and thus to
unearth the past in hope of unmasking the present.
After discarding hypnosis, Freud turned to free association.
When doing free association, at some point you’re unable to remember some
details, these blocks in the flow are called resistance.
Resistance – in psychoanalysis, the blocking from consciousness of anxiety-laden
Interpretation – in psychoanalysis, the analysts noting supposed dream
meanings, resistances, and other significant behaviours and events in order to
promote insight. (Provide insight in underlying wishes and conflicts)

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Another clue to unconscious conflicts is the latent content of dreams (underlying
but censored meaning).
Transference – in psychoanalysis, the patients transfer to the analyst of emotions
linked with other relationships (such as love or hatred for a parent).
Being exposed to your feelings, you will be able to work through them.
Criticism: their interpretations cannot be proven. (Therapy is not science)
This therapy takes a lot of time and it is expensive.
Psychodynamic therapy
Psychodynamic therapy – therapy deriving from the psychoanalytic tradition that
views individuals as responding to unconscious forces and childhood experiences,
and that seeks to enhance self-insight. (Focuses on important relationships)
They help gain insight on defended-against thoughts and feelings. They talk to the
patient face to face, once a week for a few weeks.
Interpersonal psychotherapy’s goal is symptom relief in the here and now, not
overall personality change; focuses on current relationships and helping improve
their relationship skills.
Humanistic therapies
Aims to boost self-fulfillment.
Insight therapies – a variety of therapies which aim to improve psychological
functioning by increasing the clients awareness of underlying motives and
defenses. (Ex: psychoanalytic and humanistic therapies)
Humanistic therapists differ from psychoanalysts in focusing on:
oThe present and future more than the past.
oConscious rather than unconscious thoughts.
oTaking responsibility for one’s feelings and action.
oPromoting growth instead of curing illness.
Client-centered therapy – a humanistic therapy, developed by Carl Rogers, in
which the therapist uses techniques such as active listening within a genuine,
accepting, empathic environment to facilitate clients growth. (Also called person-
centered therapy.) (It is nondirective therapy)
When placed in a healthy environment, clients deepen their self-understanding
and self-acceptance.
Active listening – empathic listening in which the listener echoes, restates, and
clarifies. A feature of Rogers client-centered therapy.
Rogers admits that one cannot be totally nondirective, but he believes that the
therapist needs to accept and understand the client.
Unconditional positive regard – a caring, accepting, nonjudgmental attitude,
which Carl Rogers believed to be conductive to developing self-awareness and

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To listen more attentively in relationships: paraphrase, invite clarification and
reflect feelings.
Behaviours therapies
Behaviour therapy – therapy that applies learning principles to the elimination
of unwanted behaviours.
Learned behaviours can be replaced by constructive behaviours.
They doubt the power of self-awareness.
Classical conditioning techniques
Maladaptive symptoms can be examples of conditioned responses. (Pavlov)
Mowrer developed a treatment for bed-wetters, where an alarm rings when liquid
is detected on the bed.
Counterconditioning – a behaviour therapy procedure that uses classical
conditioning to evoke new responses to stimuli that are triggering unwanted
behaviours; includes exposure therapies and aversive conditioning.
Ex: it pairs the trigger stimulus (enclosed space) with a new response (relaxation)
that is incompatible with fear. (For claustrophobics)
Exposure therapies
Ex. of Peter not being scared of rabbits anymore; the fear was countered.
Exposure therapies – behavioural techniques, such as systematic desensitization,
that treat anxieties by exposing people (in imagination or actuality) to the things
they fear and avoid.
Systematic desensitization – a type of exposure therapy that associates a pleasant
relaxed state with gradually increasing anxiety-triggering stimuli. Commonly
used to treat phobias. (Goal: substituting a positive (relaxed) response for a
negative (fearful) response to a harmless stimulus)
Ex: first you must do a hierarchy of anxiety-triggering fears, and after you must
do progressive relaxation: the therapist trains you to relax one muscle group
after another, until you achieve a drowsy state of complete relaxation. You keep
doing this until you reach the top of the hierarchy.
Virtual reality exposure therapy – an anxiety treatment that progressively
exposes people to stimulations of their greatest fears, such as airplane flying,
spiders, or public speaking. (Cheaper)
Those experiencing virtual reality exposure therapy have had great relief from
their fears then have those in control groups.
Aversive conditioning
Aversive conditioning – a type of counterconditioning that associates an
unpleasant state (such as nausea) with an unwanted behaviour (such as drinking
alcohol). (Goal: substituting a negative (aversive) response for a positive
response to a harmful stimulus (such as alcohol))
It seeks to condition an aversion to something the person should avoid.
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