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Midterm

PSY 2301 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Postcentral Gyrus, Dendritic Spine, Cerebral Cortex


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY 2301
Professor
Andra Smith
Study Guide
Midterm

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PSY2301 Midterm 1
1
Ch 1
Cerebral cortex: heavily folded outer layer of brain tissue composed of neurons
Behavior (Eibl-Eibesfeldt): patterns in time (ex. movement, memory)
de la Mettrie: thought is produced by brain
Innate vs. learned: fixed vs. flexible ways of responding
Perspectives on Brain & Behavior
1. Mentalism (Aristotle): behavior & life as a function of nonmaterial psyche
Brain cools blood; no role in producing behavior
2. Dualism (Descartes): mind & body must be joined & united to constitute people (behavior)
Mind-Body Problem: quandary of explaining a nonmaterial mind in command of a material body
Mind directs rational behavior; body & brain direct other behavior via mechanical & physical
Mind is in the pineal gland for intelligence/behavior vs. biological rhythms
Mind regulates behavior by directing the flow of ventricular fluid to muscles (FALSE)
Problem: those with damaged pineal bodies or none still display normal intelligence
3. Materialism (Darwin & Wallace): behavior explained as a function of NS without recourse to mind
Supported evolutionary theories of Wallace & Darwin (natural selection- species evolve)
Genetic Mutation Adaptive Trait Chances of Survival Trait Passed to Offspring
Since all animal species are related, their behavior, neurons & brains must be related too
- Facial expressions in man & animals are similar- study simpler animals to understand humans
Epigenetics: study of differences in gene expression related to environment & experience
Nerve net: simple NS, organized as a net with no brain; sensory & motor neurons (older phyla)
Segmented nerve trunk: bilaterally symmetrical organization, similar series of muscular segments
Ganglia: structures that resemble & function somewhat like a brain (encephalization if found in the head)
Chordate NS (4 similarities)
Evolution of complex behavior is related to evolution (size, folds) of cerebrum & cerebellum
Brain & spinal cord encased in cartilage/bone
Crossed organization: each hemisphere receives info & controls the opposite side of the body
Spinal cord is dorsal to heart & gut
Hominid: primates that walk upright; includes all forms of humans
Principle of Proper Mass (Jerison): species exhibiting complex behaviors have relatively brains
Compare brain & behavior between different species (evolutionary) vs. within (difficult)
Encephalization Quotient (Jerison): ratio of actual brain size to expected for a particular body size
H. sapiens have the largest EQ; difference in abilities among individuals due to brain region size (?)
Why Hominid Brain Enlarged
Rapid climate changes produced new environments (grass) that select for new traits (walk upright)
Primate lifestyle: primate foraging (fruit) is more complex (spatial, memory) vs. others (ground)
Changes in hominid physiology
Radiator Hypothesis (Falk): brain activity = heat generated
blood circulation improve braining cooling Size of Hominid Brains
Stedman: genetic mutation facial muscles & bones change in diet brain size
Neoteny: retention of juvenile features in the adult animal
Rate of maturation slowed: allows more brain cells to be produced
Newly evolved species resemble young of common ancestors (ex. human head vs. chimpanzee)
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PSY2301 Midterm 1
2
Ch 2
Bai’s Pia Futios
1. Creating a sensory reality: evolution equipped species with a view of the world that helps it survive
2. Integrating info: current knowledge compared with past knowledge
3. Producing Behavior: ex. movement
Top/bottom: dorsal/ventral Front/back: anterior/posterior Middle/side: medial/lateral
Afferent: info to brain (from sensory receptors) Efferent: info from brain ( neurons) *exit
Meninges: 3 layers of protective tissue
1. Dura: tough double layer of fibrous tissue enclosing the brain
2. Arachnoid: thi sheet of oetie tissue that follos the ai’s otous
3. Pia Matter: moderately tough membrane of connective tissue fibers that cling to the brain surface
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF): cushions brain; fills ventricles and circulates in CNS in subarachnoid space
Meningitis: infection of CSF & meninges (pia matter & arachnoid layer) sx: headache, drowsiness, coma
Pre-central gyrus- primary motor cortex
Post-central gyrus: primary somatosensory cortex
Stroke: interruption of blood flow = sudden neurological symptoms (anterior/middle/posterior cerebral artery)
Hemorrhagic (20%): blood leaks into brain tissue
Ischemic (80%): clot stops blood supply to brain area (embolic- formed outside; thrombotic- inside)
NS
White Matter: nerve fibres- rich in fat-sheathed neural axons
Gray Matter: neurons- composed of cell bodies & blood vessels
Ventricle: cavity that contains CSF: 2 lateral ventricles (left & right), 3rd & 4th ventricle
Corpus Callosum: fiber system connecting the 2 cerebral hemispheres
Nerve/Tract: large collection of axons coursing together outside/inside the CNS
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