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Study Guide

[PSY2301] - Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes fot the exam (49 pages long!)


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY 2301
Professor
Andra Smith
Study Guide
Final

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uOttawa
PSY2301
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Chapter 1
Why study brain and behaviour
Eg Parkinson's
o Depletion of dopamine - much more complex - 80% depletion of dopamine to see disease, by
this point you can't go back
Lack of dopamine everywhere, area that produces dopamine
Still no cure
Schizophrenia
o Increase in dopamine - causing hallucinations
What is the Brain
Brain - 1.3 kg organ
o Heavily folded called: gyro
o Groves of the cortex: sulci
o Lobes; frontal (higher order f(n), motor cortex), Parietal lobe
(primary somato sensory cortex,process sensory), Occipital lobe (vision), Temporal lobe
(auditory cortex, hippocampus, amygdala)
Gross structure of the nervous system
Spinal cord; how Brain communicates with the body
Central nervous system
Peripheral nervous system
Autonomic
Automatic things in body (breathing)
Somatic
Senses, muscle control
Neuron
Sensory neuron
Bring in info from evironment
Motor neuron
Acting on the information from spinal cord and brain to make muscles contract
What is behaviour
Humans have the most diverse behaviours
Behaviours consist of patterns and time
Innate behaviours
Fixed; we don't learn; naturally have
Eg. Kittens will kill a bird even if they haven't seen it before
Learned
Flexible ways of responding
Baby leading how to use a bottle
More complex the behavoiur the more complex the brain
Simple nervous system = narrow range of behaviour
Complex nervous system = wider range of behaviour
History of brain research
Metalism
An explanation of behaviour as a f(n) of the no material mind (psyche)
Psyche: synonym for minds; an entity once people's to be the source of human behaviour
Dualism
A nonmaterial mind and the material body contribute to behaviour
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Mind body problem: quandary of explaining a nonmaterial mind in command
Mind directs rational behaviour
While the brain alone produces anamilsitc behaviours
Materialism
The mind is really coming from the brain
From Wallace and Darwin
Observing the common things in animals - common ancestry
Explanation for how new speices evolve and existing species change over time
Genetic mutation - adaptive trait - increases chances of survival - traits passed on to
offspring
Because all species of animals are related, their behaviour must be related too
Animals with nervous system
Nerve net
Motor neurons - sea anemone
Segmented nerve trunk
flatworm
Ganglia
Squid
Brain
True spinal cord - chordate
Common in chordate a
Bilaterally symmetrical and segmented
Brain and spinal cord encased in carriage
Crossed organization (in brain)
Spinal cord is dorsal (behind hart and gut)
Differences in chordate
Cerebellum: in the hindbrain; involved in coordination of motor and other mental processes
Increase in complexity as species evolve
Features in common to primates
Colour vision
Eyes Infront of face
Brain size and behaviour
Principle of proper mass
Speices exhibiting more complex behaviours will possess relatively larger brains
i.e used body size to predict brain size
Therefore; humans have larger brains relative to body size
Although elephants physically have larger brains not in comparison to body size
Encephalization quotient (EQ)
Number value of brain size
Measure of brain size obtained from the ratio of actual brain size to the elected brain size
for an animal of a particular body size
Why the hominid brain enlarged
Animals had to adapt to changing climate
There fore only the animals that could adapt would survive
Eg. Animals that walked upright would do well in grass covered areas that were not previously
covered in grass
The primate lifestyle
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