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PSY 3301 Study Guide - Quiz Guide: Entorhinal Cortex, Piriform Cortex, Spinal Cord


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY 3301
Professor
Claude Messier
Study Guide
Quiz

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Sept 10th, 2015
Brain Maturation: 4-21 yrs: Cortical pruning
-higher order association cortices mature only after lower-order
somatosensory and visual cortices
Oligodendrocytes precursor cells, Astrocytes = tiling cells
Astrocytes – connected to synapses (most need for nutrients)
Structure of the cortex (Brodmann’s map)
Somatosensory homunculus
Intrinsic mobility of dendritic spines
-establishing new connections in the brain
There are multiple maps
Localization of functions
-some areas when damaged cause specific deficits however v clear that
language for example not localized to one area
Multimodal maps
-integrate very many senses important for higher activity in the brain
Plasticity
September 15th Quiz (34-44)
2-1 Overview of Brain Function and Structure
Primary function is to produce behaviour, or movement
Stimulation
Adaptability: equips each species w a view of the world that helps it survive
Plastic patterns of neural organization
-neural tissue has capacity to adapt to the world by changing how it
functions are organized e.g. blind person has enhanced auditory
capacities
-neuron connections in a given functional system are constantly changing
in response to experience
-as we learn cortical regions increase to accommodate learning
-culture plays a role
Neuroplasticity
-basis for change in NS fundamental property of neuroplasticity
-NS potential for physical or chemical change enhances adaptability to
environmental change and its ability to compensate for injury

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Phenotypic plasticity
-one’s capacity to develop into more than one phenotype: characteristic
that can be seen and measured
-one’s genotype (genetic makeup) interacts w the environment to elicit a
specific phenotype from a larger genetic repertoire of possibilities, a
phenomenon that results from epigenetic influences
-Epigenetics: differences in gene expression related to environment and
experience
-epigenetic factors (two mice twins, mom on diff diet each time) epigenetic
tags determine whether gene available to influence cells, including
neurons leading to the differences (diff phenotypes)
Functional organization of the NS
Functional organization –little changes; focus of how parts of system work
together
CNS
-brain, spinal cord
Somatic nervous system (part of PNS)
-all spinal and cranial nerves carrying sensory info to the CNS from the
muscles, joints, skin, also transmits outgoing motor instructions that
produce movement
Autonomic NS (part of PNS)
-balances body internal organs to rest + digest thru parasympathetic
(calming) nerves or to fight + flee or engage in vigorous activity thru
sympathetic (arousing) nerves
-regulate fnc of internal organs and glands
Direction of neural info flow
Afferent
-conducting toward a central NS structure
-sensory info coming into CNS (incoming)
Efferent
-conducting away from a central NS structure
Cerebral security
September 17th Quiz (50-60)
2-3 CNS mediating behavior
Summary:
CNS includes brain and spinal cord. Spinal cord can perceive sensations from
skin and muscles and produce movements independent of the brain. Brain can
be divided into brainstem and forebrain, each made up of 100’s of parts.
Brainstem both directs movements and creates a sensory world thru its
connections w the sensory systems, spinal cord and forebrain. Forebrain
modifies and elaborates basic sensory and motor functions, regulates cognitive
activity, including thought and memory and holds ultimate control over

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movement. Most elaborate part of forebrain is cerebral cortex, which grows
disproportionately large in human brains.
Focus on CNS: spinal cord and brainstem and forebrain
Principle 6: Brain systems are organized both hierarchically and in parallel
Spinal cord
- produces most body movements
- not a single structure but set of segmented switching stations
- spinal reflex is automatic
Brainstem
- central structures of the brain, including the hindbrain, midbrain, thalamus,
hypothalamus responsible for most unconscious behaviour
- begins where spinal cord enters skull and extends upward into lower
areas of the forebrain
- divided into 3 regions: hindbrain (long thick), midbrain (short compact) and
diencephalon (between brain, bulbous like hand)
Principle 7: sensory and motor divisions exist thru the NS
Hindbrain
- Evolutionarily oldest part of brain, contains pons, medulla, reticular
formation, cerebellum structures that coordinate and control most
voluntary and involuntary movements
- Slower animals have smaller cerebellums for body size
- Reticular formation: netlike mix of neurons (gray matter) and nerve fibres
(white mater) that gives this structure the mottled appearance from which
its name derives
oSpecial function in stimulating forebrain like waking from sleep
- Pons, medulla regulate breathing
Midbrain
- central part of brain that contains neural circuits for hearing and seeing as
well as orienting movements
- optic nerve sends large bundle of nerve fibres to superior colliculus
whereas inferior colliculus receives info from auditory paths
- Orienting movements: movement related to sensory inputs, such as
turning the head to see the source of a sound
Tectum: roof (area above ventricle) of midbrain, functions are sensory
processing, like visual and auditory and production of orienting movements
Tegmentum: floor (area below ventricle) of midbrain, collection of nuclei w
movement-related species-specific and pain perception functions
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