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PSY 3307 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Social Desirability Bias, Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, Operational Definition

Course Code
PSY 3307
Elizabeth Kristjansson
Study Guide

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Psychometric Instruments Should:
-adequately cover behaviour
-have clearly written items
-provide information which can be replicated
-be feasible to administer and score
-contain fairness (not equality) for all participants (if we gave the same equal tests than minorities
would may not have the same advantages as the majorities which developed the test or survey)
-instruments should be used and interpreted correctly
-be based in scientific research and theory
-reliable and valid
Psychometric Instruments Should Not:
-be biased in testing (ie. if one question is appropriate for one culture and not another but we are
looking to study cross-culturally)
-contain poorly written questions
Achievement Tests: a test created by a teacher or professor measures what has already been learned on a
specific academic setting (ie. final exam or spelling test)
Aptitude Test: measures an individual’s potential for learning or ability to perform in specific situations
(ie. vocational, educational, SAT)
Intelligence Test: also measure an individual’s potential to learn but at broader levels, identifies
strengths and deficits, used diagnostically in educational or clinical settings
Interest Inventory: identifies someones interests to predicted satisfaction in potential in job or academia,
used in educational, career, or counselling situations
Personality Tests: measures character and disposition
Questionnaires and Surveys: different from tests because it focus on a group rather than an individual
Sampling Frame: who you want to sample from the target population
Health Survey: tell government about the health of a population in order to direct healthcare funding
Tests: individual outcomes, clinical uses, individual receives a grad out of a total score
Survey: a group of outcomes, question score are often reported, surveys may include one or more tests or
History of Psychological Testing
Why: To learn from past mistakes, to understand how tests have evolved and developed, strengths and
limitations of testing, and to learn from historical misuses
220BC: tests were administer by the royal family in order to hire public officials
1370AD: only 10% passed a “working test” which kept talented men in the government
Late 1800s
-early tests to diagnose mental illness
-Conrad Reiger: developed a ambitious test (100h) to differentiate schizophrenia and depression but
the test when unused
The Brass Instrument Era
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-experimental psychology
-interested in exploring individual differences between people
-systematic way of gathering data
-experimental psychologists
Wilhelm Wundt
-first psychologists laboratory in 1879
-in 1862 he developed the thought meter which measure how quickly someone could think, the speed of
-crude, but did measure a mental process
-objectively intended to measure a mental process
Francis Galton
-responsible for modern psychometrics
-used careful measurements
-measured the boringness of lectures
-empirical study of genius and inquiries into human faculty and it’s development
-set up an anthropometric lab in London (1855) where various instruments measured intelligence via
vision, hearing, speed
-“brass instruments” which measured the size of someone’s head, had people judge the weight of
objects, and other tasks to measure intelligence
-measured these variables with precision and statistics
Early “Mental Tests” (1890)
-developed by Catell
-compared intelligence scores to grades among college students
Wissler: created the first test validation
Testing was used to improve the identification and training of mentally retarded people
-because of public concern about the treatment of mentally ill people
-required uniform criteria
-Esquirol discovered a boy who had lived in the forest and couldn’t learn anything
Sequin: A Pioneer in Training
-in 1838 he developed experimental training class for the mentally ill
-used behaviouralism and rewards for completing tasks
-in 1866 wrote the first book on the treatment of mental retardation
Intelligence Test: Binet
-developed the first real intelligence test
-was influenced by his medical school training and Charcot’s hypnotism movement, as well as
Sorbonne’s individual psychology
-tested new and existing measures of intelligence
-in 1896 Binet and Henri criticized available mental tests and concluded that brass instruments were not
measuring anything significant
Binet and Simon Scales
1904: were commission on educating mentally ill individuals, and were asked to develop a
intelligence scale
1905: Binet and Simon intelligence scale
-comparing lines
-finding food
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-went from simple to hard
1908: refined the intelligence test into ages, score translated into a mental level, and the concept of
“mental age” was created
1911: the third revision by Binet and Simon
1916: Terman’s Revision
-mental age was divided by actual age and multiplied by 100
-severe, mild, moderate intelligence
-100 as the “average mental age” for your actual age
-even with these revisions the test is still called Stanford-Binet
Goddard: Misuses of Intelligence Tests
-could abuse racial divides
-US psychologists were interested in practical applications of intelligence tests
-first translation of the Binet-Simon
-tested 378 in Vineland
-1547 children
-found that immigrants and mentally ill to be retarded and should be segregated from the rest of the
-was a strict herridetarian (intelligence is hereditary)
-he concluded that intelligence of immigrants were low, but this was view was shared by society
-in 1910 he was hired to go to Ellis island to sort the immigrants into categories for jobs that they were
suited for depending on how they were performing intellectually
-he was wrong because he translated the test from french to english without having it validated, his tests
were in english for people who didn’t speak english, and he used translators who may or may not have
translated the test properly
-participants were not tested under ideal conditions, they had often just gotten off the ship and were
tired, scared, sick, and hungry
-concluded that 83% of Jews, 80% of Hungarians, 79% of Italians, and 87% of Russians were of low
Group Testing of WWI Recruits
-early group tests in 1913,
-army officials wanted efficacy
-U.S Army and Yerks developed Army Alpha and Army Beta tests in 1917
-the alpha test was for highly verbal individuals and consistend of eight subtests which tested reaction
time, memory, judgement, reasoning, etc.
-the beta test was for immigrants and the illiterate and was meant to test perceptual and motor skills, test
instructions were mimed to the participants
-validity was doubtful, and the tests were admitted quickly under stressful conditions without
acceptance of individual differences or cultural backgrounds
-Yerkes eventually admitted that his data was invalid and based on poor treatment conditions
Brigham (1923): “A Study of American Intelligence”
-analyzed beta and alpha tests
-said that african americans, mediterranean, and alpine immigrants were intellectually inferior
-reinforced stereotypes that were not true
-Brigham eventually disavowed these beliefs
Achievement Tests
-standardized achievement tests were developed in the late 1800s
-important to diagnose individual disorders and compare groups
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