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PSY 4327 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Obstructive Sleep Apnea, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Multiple Sleep Latency Test

Course Code
PSY 4327
Kathleen Biard
Study Guide

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1. General Characteristics of Sleep
1.1 Stages of Sleep
REM (rapid eye movement) & Non-REM (NREM)
NREM = N1, N2, N3
1.1a NREM
Eyes stay still
Regular breathing, heart rate decreases
N1: lightest sleep stage, hypnic jerks/sleep starts, dozing
oTransitory stage
oEyes might be closed, relaxed, might have muscle tone
oExample: on the bus or in class
o5-10 minutes
N2: sleep spindles & K complexes (patterns in sleep)
oProper sleep
N3: deepest, most physically restorative sleep stage
oFormerly stages 3 & 4
oMore difficult to wake in this stage
oDecreases with age
oNeurons are synchronized
oBreathing regular, heart rate decreases
When eyes move, and you put electrodes near them, you catch electrical signals because front of
eyes has slight positive charge and back of eyes has slight negative charge
2 kinds of apneas:
o1) Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)
When throat falls closed and obstructs breathing
Most common
When there is effort in chest belt
o2) Central sleep apnea (CSA)
When you forget to breathe
Results in brain damage
No movement in chest belt
Alpha waves = awake
N1: alpha disappears, slow rolling eye movements, muscle tone is calmed down
oK complex caused by brain when something alerts you = spike of activity
oSpindle: activity like when you’re awake but squished together
Tells your body to go back to sleep after K complex
N3: characterized by delta waves (huge EEG waves), brain starts to shut down a lot of things,
body restores itself, all electrons in brain acts the same at the same time (causes big waves), eyes
do not move (brain signals are so synchronized that it looks like eye movement)
oWhen neurons synchronized, big waves (they move together)
1.1b REM
REM = rapid eye movement

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Muscle atonia (paralysis)
oNo movement in muscles
oVery active and violent dreams
Dream recall is better than in NREM
90-minute latency
“Paradoxical sleep” because EEG mimics wakefulness
oBrain is very awake and busy
Irregular breathing, heart rate fluctuates
In REM-sleep behaviour disorder, there is no muscle atonia, so the person has vivid dreams and
acts them out (might result in getting hurt, strangling others, etc.)
Most people don’t move in REM sleep
oLinked to sleep paralysis – when you wake up, but your brain is still asleep
oYou can hear people talking and look around, but you can’t control your breathing and
you can’t move
oBest way to get out of it is to wiggle your eyes
oMay have hallucinations
oMain symptom is that you’re scared of what’s happening
Dream imagery in sleep paralysis – can imagine something on your chest (ex: spiders or snakes)
EEG looks awake (like N1)
oCan be confused with N1 when eyes aren’t moving in REM
1.2 Measuring Sleep in the Laboratory
EEG – brainwaves (central & occipital leads)
oREM looks like you’re awake when only looking at EEG
E G – eye movements
EMG – muscle tone
oWhen asleep, muscles relax
oIn REM, muscle tone is very low
EKG/ECG – heart
Breathing: important because breathing problems might wake people up
o1) Airflow
o2) Effort: Thoracic & abdominal
Blood oxygen saturation (SaO2)
Snore mic
Digital AV recording

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1.3 When Sleep Goes Wrong
Apnea – breathing problems in sleep
Narcolepsy – REM sleep on/off switch is broken
Parasomnias – moving around/doing things while sleeping
Restless legs
Bruxism – teeth grinding
Insomnia – being unable to fall asleep or stay asleep
oDebate whether insomnia is its own disorder, or whether it’s always related to something
2. Sleep in Animals
2.1 Sleep in Different Animals
Insects sleep, but not in the same way humans do
oDifferent physiology, so difficult to interpret
oInsects have a passive state called “torpor”, which is their equivalent to sleep
oSimilar to hibernation but not as intense and lasts only part of the day
Amphibians and fish have never been found to have experience similar to REM
Birds spend 5% of their sleep in REM
Most mammals experience REM
oThe more complex the brain, the more REM
Reptiles have rapid eye movements during sleep, but they are not accompanied with brain waves
similar to those of humans during REM
Cat sleep is very similar to human sleep
2.2 Comparison of Sleep-Wake Cycles in Different Mammals
Humans: awake 60%, slow wave sleep (SWS) 33%, REM 7%
oCats (42%), foxes (59%), dogs (66%), rabbits (50%), rats (43%) are similar in % awake
oCats (42%), foxes (31%), dogs (30%) are similar in % SWS
oFoxes (10%), rats (9%), baboons (11%) are similar in % REM
Dark grey = REM
Light grey = SWS
White = awake
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