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Psychology Exam Review.docx

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Kenneth Campbell

Introduction to Psychology: Foundations | PSY 1101 Final Exam Review: Key Concepts The Story of Psychology B.F. SKINNER: founded many theories of behaviorism STRUCTURALISM: uses introspection to explore the elemental structure of the human mind [founded by Edward Titchener] FUNCTIONALISM: how mental & behavioral processes enable organisms to adapt, survive & flourish [founded by William James] SOCRATES/PLATO: The theory that the mind continues after death; some ideas are innate and built from within [duality] ARISTOTLE: the mind and body are connected; all contents of the mind must be learned [we are born with a blank slate] RÉNE DESCARTES: the mind and body are separate Thinking Critically FALSE CONSENSES EFFECT: the tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and attitudes ILLUSIONARY CORRELATION: a perceived nonexistent correlation; helps to explain superstition CONTROL GROUP: the group that is not exposed to the treatment EXPERIMENTAL GROUP: the group exposed to the treatment PLACEBO: experimental results caused by expectations alone HINDSIGHT BIAS: a tendency to think events are more predictable than they really are Ethics of Research/Scientific Process All studies performed in psychology must be approved by an ethics board that assures:  The participant is informed about what they will be doing in the study  The participant is protected from risk and harm  Confidentiality  The purpose of the research is explained either before or after the study INDEPENDENT VARIABLE: the experimental factor being manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied DEPENDENT VARIABLE: the outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable Independent variable must be manipulated in order to prove causality. Manipulation of the independent variable causes the scores on the dependent variable to change. The Biology of the Mind NEURONAL COMMUNICATION:  Excitatory inputs exceed inhibitory inputs by a significant threshold, and the neuron fires  The resulting impulse reaches the axon’s end, and triggers the release of chemical neurotransmitters  After jumping gaps, the molecules activate receptor sites on neighboring neurons PITUITARY GLAND: responds to signals from the hypothalamus, releases trigger hormones; releases endocrine hormones as a result PHRENOLOGY: reduced various behaviors to specific areas of the brain; caused changes in the shape of the skull [F. Gall, 1800s] DEPOLARIZATION: the change in the charge of the neuron [less negativity or more positivity] ACTION POTENTIAL: [caused by significant depolarization] when the flow of positively charged ions reaches a certain critical threshold, the neuron fires ALL-OR-NONE LAW: a nerve impulse resulting from a weak stimulus is just as strong as a nerve impulse resulting from a strong stimulus NEUROTRANSMITTERS: a chemical substance released at the end of a nerve fiber by the arrival of a nerve impulse & by diffusing across the synapse, causes the transfer of the impulse to another nerve/muscle fiber  Acetylcholine (Ach): enables muscle contraction; learning & memory  Norepinephrine (NE): helps control alertness and arousal  Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA): major inhibitory neurotransmitter, undersupply linked to depression  Dopamine (DA): influences movement, learning, attention & emotion  Serotonin: affects mood, hunger, sleep and arousal  Endorphins: “natural opiates” of the brain; increases mood & pleasure TECHNIQUE PROS CONS Excellent cross-section Expensive; hazardous for CT (computed tomography) imaging; X-rays radiation PET Shows which areas of Invasive; relatively slow; (positron emission the brain require expensive glucose tomography) Provides a hi-res imageExpensive, does not indicate MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) of the brain which parts of the brain are active during a certain task fMRI Looks at the changes in Expensive; too slow for (functional MRI) structure (blood flow) as many brain functions the brain engages in a task EEG Provides an indication ofPoor resolution; we cannot electrical activity in teasily tell where the activity (electroencephalogram) brain; Cheap is being generated Nervous System PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM: the sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system to the rest of the body AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM: the part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs (i.e. the heart) SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM: division of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM: division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body, conserving its energy CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM: the brain and spinal cord; communicates with the body’s sensory receptors, muscles and glands via peripheral NS Brain Anatomy MEDULLA: base of the brainstem; controls heartbeat and breathing [hindbrain] PONS: helps co-ordinate movements [hindbrain] CEREBELLUM: the “little brain” at the rear of the brainstem; processes sensory output and coordinates movement output and balance [hindbrain] CEREBRUM: controls and integrates motor, sensory, and higher mental functions, such as thought, reason, emotion, and memory; the largest portion of the brain [forebrain] RETICULAR FORMATION: plays an important role in arousal [brainstem] THALAMUS: directs messages to sensory receiving areas in the cortex & transmits replied to the cerebellum and medulla [brainstem] HYPOTHALAMUS: neural structure below the thalamus; directs several maintenance activities [eating, drinking, body temp], helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland, and is linked to emotion & reward HIPPOCAMPUS: involved in emotions, motivation, and learning; plays an important role for short-term memory & is crucial for our ability to form long-term memories [limbic system] AMYGDALA: almond-shaped mass of gray matter deep inside each cerebral hemisphere, associated with the sense of smell [limbic system] FRONTAL LOBE: motor functions, “will” & initiative; Broca’s area/speech; ability to learn from error; self-consciousness & personality PARIETAL LOBE: permanent memory, switching of attention & naming objects TEMPORAL LOBE: Wernicke’s area, storage of short term memories, amygdala & hippocampus, limbic system OCCIPITAL LOBE: main center for visual processing, color recognition and visual perception ASSOCIATION AREAS: areas of the cerebral cortex that are not involved in primary motor or sensory functions; but are involved in higher mental functions such as learning, remembering, thinking and speaking CORPUS CALLOSUM: the large band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres and communicating information between them ANTERIOR CINGULATE CORTEX: inhibitor of inappropriate action including correction of error, reward-based learning, detection of pain MIRROR NEURONS: frontal love neurons that fire when performing certain actions; may enable imitation and empathy Consciousness & The Two-Track Mind DUAL PROCESSING: simultaneous/parallel processing of conscious and unconscious thought or information SELECTIVE ATTENTION: selectively concentrating on one aspect of the environment while ignoring other stimuli FEATURE PROCESSING: the activation of neurons in the cortex by visual stimuli of specific shapes or patterns, lines, edges, or movement[pop outs] REM SLEEP: rapid eye movement sleep; a recurring sleep stage in which vivid dreams occur; plays a role in learning, storage of new memories NREM SLEEP: repairs and regenerates tissues; builds bone and muscle, appears to strengthen the immune system; ½ of sleep is spent in stage 2 REM REBOUND: the tendency for REM sleep to increase following REM sleep deprivation (created by repeat awakenings during REM sleep) ALPHA WAVES: the relatively slow brain waves of a relaxed, awake state DELTA WAVES: the large, slow brain waves associated with deep sleep SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS: detects darkness/lightness; a group of nuclei in the interior region of the hypothalamus, superior to the optic chiasm MANIFEST CONTENT: [Freud] the remembered storyline of a dream LATENT CONTENT: [Freud] the underlying meaning of a dream HYPNOSIS: a social interaction in which the hypnotist suggests to another that certain behaviors, perceptions, and feelings will spontaneously occur PSYCHOACTIVE DRUG: a chemical substance that alters perception/mood NEAR-DEATH EXPERIENCE: an altered state of consciousness reported after a close brush with death; similar to drug-induced hallucinations BOTTOM-UP PROCESSING: analysis that begins with the sensory receptors and works up to the brain’s integration of sensory information TOP-DOWN PROCESSING: information processing guided by higher- level mental processes, as when we construct perceptions drawing on our experience and expectation AUTOMATIC PROCESSING: tasks that can be carried out without cortical effort; rapid processing; used for repetitive, well-learned tasks CONTROLLED PROCESSING: tasks requiring effort in order to be completed; slow processing; used for novel, poorly learned tasks SERIAL PROCESSING: requires effort; the processing of one task must be completed before the processing of another can begin DEPRESSANTS Alcohol Depresses neural activity, inhibits REM sleep & depresses frontal lobe control Barbiturates Induces relaxation & sleep, in large doses can impair memory/judgment, or even kill Opiates Increases pleasure and reduces pain, derivative of heroine + morphine, addictive STIMULANTS Nicotine Stimulates the CNS, increases heart rate & blood pressure, extremely addictive Caffeine Most common, increases alertness
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