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Midterm review Comprehensive review notes from the first half of the course. Textbook and lecture notes have been integrated.

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University of Ottawa
Najwa Haddad

Introduction Socrates and Platothe mind is separable from the body and continues after death and knowledge is innateAristotlethe soul is not separable from the body and the body holds the particular parts of the soul Knowledge is not innate and is derived from experiences and memoriesRene Descartes 15951650agreed with Socrates Dissected animals and found animal spirits in the brain and these flowed through the nerves which are hollow to the muscles to make movement Memories formed when experience pores in the brain opened allowing the inflow of spirits Francis Bacon 15911626John Locke 1632 1704 Both confirmed that the mind is born a clean slate and is shaped and given knowledge from our experiences One December day in 1879 the new science of psychology was born Wilhelm Wundt and some students did the first experiment in which they had to press a buzzer when they heard the sound and then do it when they were aware of their awareness of the sound He sought to measure the simplest and fastest mental processes the atoms of the mindThe early schools of psychology were structuralism and functionalism Structuralism used introspection to explore the elemental structure of the human mind Titchener wanted to discover the elements of the mind He did this by getting people to report their experiences as they looked at a rose listened to a metronome tasted and substance and smelled a scent Their immediate sensations images feelings How did these relate to those of other peopleThere is only one thing in the whole universe that we could know more than what we could learn about from our external observations And that is ourselves Introspection required smart verbal people It was also unreliable because it varied from person to person and experience to experience Also peoples recollections err frequently The truth is we dont really know why we feel the way we do and do what we doFunctionalism focuses on how mental and behavioural processes function and how they enable the organism to survive adapt and flourish James assumed we think because its adaptiveFrom text Psychologys biggest and most enduring issue concerns the balance between the influences of nature genes and nurture all other influences from conception to death Philosophers had long debated whether nature the view of Plato and Descartes or nurturethe view of Aristotle and Locke was more important Charles Darwin proposed a mechanismthe principle of natural selectionby which nature selects chance variations that enable organisms to survive and reproduce in particular environments Psychologists now believe that in most cases every psychological event is simultaneously a biological event A great deal of research including studies of identical and fraternal twins sheds light on the relative importance of these two sets of influences on such traits as personality and intelligence Psychologys 3 main levels of analysis of behaviour or mental process biopsychosocial approacho Biological influences Genetic predispositionGenetic mutationsNatural selection of adaptive physiology and behavioursGenes responding to the environment epigenetics o Psychological influencesLearned fears and other learned expectationsEmotional responsesCognitive processing and perceptual interpretations o Socialcultural influencesPresence of othersCultural societal and family expectationsPeer and othergroup influencesCompelling models ex mediaPsychologys perspectives o Neuroscience how the body and brain enable emotions memories and sensory experiences
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