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Midterm Study Notes.pdf

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University of Ottawa

Psychology Study NotesMidterm Kenneth Campbell PSY 1101 C Fall 2013Divisions and Schools of PsychologyWhat is psychologyThe study of the brain and its mental processesScience is objective psychology isnt always o Difficult to define quantify and observe variablesEx Mental processesDivisions of Psychology Experimental PsychologyEstablished in the mid to late 1800s st 1 experimental psychology lab was done by WIllhelm Wundt in Leipzig GermanyThe exact description of consciousness is the sole aim of experimental psychologyBasic principles of experimentation are used to explain psychological phenomenaStructuralism school of psychology that used introspection to examine the basic structures of the mind o Highly subjective and unreliable o Debate over the mind being physical or nonphysicalFunctionalism school of psychology that focussed on how our mental and behavioural processes work and how they enable us to live o Still highly subjectiveDivisions of Psychology Clinical PsychologyBranch of psychology that studies assesses and treats people with psychological disordersCounselling psychotherapySigmund FreudMajor roots are more recent 1940sFirst clinical psychology department was the University of OttawaNow the major field in psychologyDivisions of Psychology Applied PsychologySocial developmental educational industrial psychologyApply knowledge of basic fundamental psychologySchools of Psychology CognitiveMajor branch of experimental psychology in the late 1800s and early 1900sStudy of higher mental functions like consciousness memory attention decision making and language th Late 19 century William JamesAttempt to infer hypothetical mental states of information processing based on current response to behaviour patterns performance o Cannot be observed only inferred subjective unreliableFell into disrepute because it was thought to be unscientific by behaviouristsLarge revival in the 1950s Now a major boom fieldProven to be highly powerful and popularCognitive Neuroscience recent innovations in neuroscience allow the experimenter to actually observe changes in brain activityNeural Cognitive Modelling using computers to mimic cognitive information processing artificial intelligenceSchools of Psychology BiologicalManipulate psychological stat attention memory decisionmaking and see the effect on brain activityManipulate the brain stimulate lesion drugs and determine the effect on psychologySchools of Psychology BehaviouralView that psychology 1 should be an objective science that 2 studies behaviour without reference to mental processesMost researchers agree with 1 but not 2Began in the 1920s with J Watson and his criticism of cognitive psychology and psychoanalysisBF Skinner 19351990 laid out much of the ground work for behaviourismStudy of mental events is considered unscientificWhy do we act the way we doAll behaviour can be explained by consequences of behaviourWe learn to repeat behaviour that has been reinforcedStrictly environmental explanation of behaviourNo need to consider genetic influencesA criminal is a criminal because of past learning and reinforcement of criminalistics behavioursDeterministic all behaviour is determined by consequential events reinforcement consequences punishment no free will actions are predeterminedSchools of Psychology SocialMost of human behaviour can be explained through evolutionary genetic principlesCalled sociobiologistsEmphasis on the study of animal behaviour ethologyDeterministic theory
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