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PSY 1101 Chapter 1Thinking Critically with Psychological Science Introduction Psychologypsychology is a science The study of cognitive processes emotional processes motivational processes and behaviours ScopePsychology is involved in every aspect of life IThe Need for Psychological ScienceA WhyA1 Limits of Intuition A2 Limits of Common Sense Common sense is the result of experience and learningHindsight BiasI Knew it All Along Phenomenon Once we know everything we need to know about something we feel we can say I told you so A3 OverconfidenceOverestimate how accurate our knowledge is A4 Illusory CorrelationSeeing a relationship between two variables when no relationship exists Cognitive EffectsAffects thinking The fact that we believe this belief means we will give more attention to anything that supports our belief Anything that opposes our belief we will ignore and disregard A5 Perceiving Order in Random EventsAs human beings we are uncomfortable with uncertainty Therefore we tend to look for explanations BThe Scientific Attitude Critical ThinkerCritical thinkers are curious openminded to a point are skeptic to balance the openmindedness aware humble realize other people are smart too and cautious C The Scientific MethodAny field of study that follows the scientific method is a science C1 Observationcasual systematicC2 Theorytheory is not fact It is an attempt at explaining somethingSummarize organize and integrate info C3 Hypothesis Testingtest idea from theory Not fact a tentative statement or productions Must follow scientific methodology Must operationally define vowels Operationalclear precise concrete station ex Optimismobtaining a score of 50 or above on the Haddad Optimism scale C4 Replicationis a must Retest Similar results lead to scientific confidenceC5 Generate or Refineif the results arent as expected start from scratch or refine original IITypes of Research StudiesADescriptive ResearchA1 Purposeto observe and describe What when where and how to be answered There is no why A2 Case Studythe study of one single person or small group InDepthstudy Researchers get as much information as possibleAdvantagesallows us to document rare cases Very indepth Good starting point ex Zoophilic exhibitionismcan only be sexually aroused by expressing oneself to a large dog Disadvantagesvery small sample can not generalize Researcher biashears what wants to hear sees what wants to seeA3 Surveycan be used in descriptive and correlation research A study where a large sample of people is asked questions In order for a survey to be scientific it must have a representative sample Representative Samplesample must closely mirror reflect and parallel the characteristics of the population of interact Populationgroup os people youre interested inSamplegroup of people from population being surveyed How do we Get a Representative Sample By doing random sampling Chance and chance alone AdvantagesEasy to administer Can reach many people Can include people who are not included in other things Sometimes it is the only way to get info Disadvantagessome people can lie on survey May receive wrong information Wording can influence answers Person conducting survey may influence answers A4 Naturalistic Observationthe researcher leaves her lab and does research in the real world However she can not interfere control or manipulate observations Advantagessometimes the only way Reality research behaviour unfolding in real time Uncover patterns Disadvantagesresearcher bias Your presence as a researcher can affect and influence behaviour BCorrelation Research B1 Purposeobserve describe predict Used in order to find a meaningful relationship between two variables ex class attendance and grades cholesterol levels and heart disease B2 Do they Covary If one variable changes does the other change too B3 In What Direction Two types of correlation positive and negative Positivechange in same direction Negativechange in opposite directions B4 To What Extent How strong is the relationship Correlation Coefficientr varies between 1 and 1Signs orpositive or negative correlationNumbersThe closer r is to one the stronger the relationship ex 088 is a strong negative correlation 036 is a weak positive correlation 0the closer r is to 0 the weaker the relationship B5 AdvantagesDisadvantagesAdvantagesexcellent first step Great when no other option Describes and predicts Better lives
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