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Psy1101 Midterm 1.docx

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University of Ottawa

Psy1101 Midterm 1Prologue Aristotle a naturalist and philosopher theorized about psychologys concepts the soul and body are not separate and that knowledge grows from experience Structuralism Edward Bradford Titchenerstudent Wilhelm WundtIntrospectionFunctionalism William JamesMary Calkins William Jamess studentAPAs first female president denieddegree fom harvardPsychology today as the scientific study of behavior what we do and mental processes inner thoughts and feelingsThree main levels of analysis Biological influences Psychological influence SocialculturalCurrent perspectives neurosciencebody and brain evolutionary natural selection behaviour geneticsgenes and environmentPsychodynamicbehaviour from unconscious Behavioralobservable response cognitiveprocess information Socialculturalbehaviour vary across culturesclinical psychologist PhD studies assesses and treats troubled people with psychotherapyPsychiatrists medical professionals MD who use treatments like drugs and psychotherapy to treat psychologically diseased patientsCounseling psychologists help people cope with challengesacademic vocational martial Biggest debate today Nature v NurtureChapter One Thinking critically with psy scienceLimits of common sense and intuitionHind sight bias tendency to believe after learning an outcome that one would have foreseen it also the I knew it all along phenomenon Overconfidencehuman tendency to be overly confident we tend to think more then we knowhindsight bias and over confidence often lead us to overestimate our intuition But scientific inquiry fed by curious skepticism and by humility can help us sift reality from illusionsThe scientific attitude is composed of curiosity passion for exploration skepticism doubting and questioning and humility ability to accept responsibility when wrongCritical thinking thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions Rather it examines assumptions discerns hidden values evaluates evidence and assesses conclusionsScientific methodthey make observations from theories then refine their theories in the light of new observations
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