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PSY LEC 1what determines why psychology is a science how the research is conducted not the subject if the scientific method is employed it is referred to as a science Scientific Method1 Observation Casual then Systematic 2 Theory Helps to organize summarize integrate the information provide us with an explanation as to why were observing what were observing Theory is not fact simply an attempt to explain 3 Hypothesis Testing Hypothesis is a testable predication a tentative statement about a relationship between two variables a operational definition of the variables as a researcher you must clearly concisely and completely define how you will measure your variables EX optimism achieving a score of 50 and above on the Haddad optimism scale 4 Replication retesting using the same operational definition and hypothesis but using a new set of participants the more you repeat the test and achieve the same results the more confident you become of your results However if you test many times and achieve different results you will be unconfident of your results 5 GenerateRefinescientific research is a work in progress in a constant state of evolution Types of Research Studies1 DescriptivePurpose to observe and describe behaviours DO NOT look for relationships or cause effectaCase Study an indepth investigation of either one single person or a very small group of people Some advantages the most indepth type of study possible ideal when dealing with a complex phenomenon with which we are completely unfamiliar great with extreme or rare cases allow for documentation of rare cases give hintsclues about normal behaviours Some disadvantages since the sample is so small you cannot generalize from the sample to the population very vulnerable to researcher bias Videotape and record everything in order to obtain an objective record of all informationb Survey Researcher will reach out to a very large group of people and ask specific questions about opinions behaviours etc Very widely used In order to make a survey scientifically viable a representative sample is necessary This means that characteristics of the sample should closely parallelreflect the characteristics of the population Ex average age of population is 19 average age of the sample must also be 19 What can you do to ensure that the sample is representative Random Sampling which is the most commonly used method Dont select participants or ask for volunteers selection must be random in order to be scientifically viable Some advantages Reach the largest possible sample of subjects you can reach include people who would usually not include in studies ex people with disabilities illiterate people etc sometimes it is the only way possible to get the required information Some disadvantages Relying on selfreport which is problematic because people may lie give the wrong answer due to lack of selfknowledge etc attitudes opinions dont always translate into action surveys are very vulnerable to wring effects slightest change could lead to a different result surveys are very vulnerable to who is conducting the interview ex gender and race Application to real life generalizing from unrepresentative samples and vivid cases False consensus effect overestimate the extent to which people share our thinking ideas opinions and behaviours we assume others are the same as us c Naturalistic Observation done outside of the lab the researcher goes out into the naturalreal world in order to study the sample in their natural habitat Some advantages no artificiality results unfold naturally without naturalistic observations there are behaviours which otherwise would not have been noticed Some disadvantages researchers presence could influence the behaviour of the subject so in order to be accurate the researcher must be as inconspicuous as possible generalizing is not accurate ex kids in Ottawa may not act the same as kidskin Brazil researcher bias assumptions theories etc could influence the conclusions 2 CorrelationalPurpose Look for meaningful relationships and use the information to make predictions for the future We are NOT looking for cause effect We ask 2 major questionsaDo they covary If one variable changes do changes occur in there other variable as well If the answer is yes then there is likely to be a meaningful relationship in the variables b in what direction Positive correlation means that the two variables change in the same direction If one variable increases then the other variable does as well if one variable decreases then the other decreases too Ex OptimismHappiness Negative correlation means that variables change in opposite directions When one variable increases the other variable decreases Ex Depression fun activities decrease Depression decreases fun activitiesc To what extent The correlation coefficient is r r is a numerical value between 1 to 1 when r0 there is no relationshipcorrelation between the variables the closer r is to 0 the weaker the relationship The further from 0 that r is the stronger the relationship Advantages Excellent 1st step great when there is no other option describes and predicts Disadvantages can NEVER draw causeeffect conclusions 3rd type of researchExperimental researchthe only type of research that allows you to scientifically explore the why of behaviour Causeeffect relationships no longer say variable now use independent and dependent variables independent causes change in another variable affects influences this is the variable that the researcher will manipulate dependent this is the variable that is being changedinfluencedaffected This is the variable that the researcher is attempting to measure EX taking Lipitor lowers cholesterol Lipitor is ind cholesterol is depdrinking green tea boosts immune function tea is ind immune function is dep Why is it the only type of research that allows you to scientifically explore the why of behaviour1 the ind variable is manipulated all the other ind variables are controlled
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