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University of Ottawa

PrologueTheStoryofPsychologyFrom Speculation to ScienceAristotle 4th century BCEAsked questions to understand the relationship between body and psycheHis way of answering those questions was to observe and make guessesWilhelm Wundt 18321920Added 2 key elements to help make psychology a scienceoCarefully measured observationsoExperimentsWilhelm Wundts 1879 ExperimentMeasured the time it took for people tooPush a button when a ball dropped based on when they heard the ball hit the platform 110th of a secondoPush a button when consciously aware of hearing the ball hit the platform 210ths of a secondEdward Titcheners StructuralismTitchener like his teacher Wilhelm Wundt relied on self report data He had people engage in introspection reporting on sensations and other elements of experience in reaction to stimuli such as the smellfeel of a flowerTitchener tried to use these introspective reports to build a view of the minds structure He called this view structuralismPsychology PioneersWilliam James 18421910 developed functionalism He studied human thoughts feelings and behaviours and asked what function might they serve How might they have helped our ancestors surviveHe wrote Principles of PsychologyJames mentored another pioneerMary Whiton Calkins 18631930Became a memory researcher and the 1st female president of the APAShe studied with William James but was denied a Harvard PhD because of her genderMargaret Flow Washburn 18711939PhD became the 2nd female APA president and wrote The Animal MindShe studied with Edward Titchener but was barred from his experimental psychology organizationbecause of her genderShifting Definitions of PsychologyWilhelm Wundt and Edward Titchener around 1900 The Science of Mental LifeCognitive Psychologists 1960s studied internal mental processes helped by neuroscience John B WatsonBF Skinner behaviourists in 1920s The Scientific Study of Observable BehaviourNow we combine these definitionsPsychology is the science of behaviour and mental processesTrends in Psychological ScienceBehaviourismJohn B WatsonBy pairing a bunny with a loud noise Watson taught a baby little Albert to fear rabbits This is called classical conditioningBF SkinnerSkinner used operant conditioning to teach pigeons to do amazing things to get rewards He later wrote about how human communities could be shaped by this methodFreudianPsychoanalytic PsychologySigmund FreudFounder of psychoanalysis 1800sHe studied and helped people with a variety of mental disordersHis school of study and treatment focused on the role of the unconscious drives and needs and emphasized the importance of childhood experiencesHumanismAbraham Maslow and Carl Rogers 1960sStudied people who were thriving rather than those who had psychological problemsDeveloped theories and treatments to help people to feel accepted and to reach their full potentialThe Growth of PsychologyPsychologys pioneers have come from many fields physiology philosophy medicine and biologyAdvances in psychology also have been made in many countriesPsychology has spread rapidlyNatureCharles DarwinSome traits behaviours and instincts are part of the nature of the speciesDescartesSome ideas are innatePlatoIdeas such as the good and beauty are inbornNurtureAristotleAll knowledge comes through the sensesJohn LockeMind is a blank slate written on by experienceNature vs NurtureNatureWe share a common origin that gives us an inborn human nature in commonNurtureWe have differences that are shaped by our environmentThree Biopsychosocial Levels of AnalysisThe Deep LevelBiologyGenes brain neurotransmitters survival reflexes sensationIn the MiddlePsychologyThoughts emotions moods choices behaviours traits motivations knowledge perceptionsThe Outer LevelEnvironmentSocial influences culture education and relationshipsThree Levels as Influences on Some Psychological PhenomenonBiological InfluencesNatural selection of adaptive traitsGenetic predispositions responding to environmentBrain mechanismsHormonal influencesPsychological InfluencesLearned fears and other learned expectationsEmotional responses Cognitive processes and perceptual interpretationsSocialCultural InfluencesPresence of othersCultural societal and family expectationsPeer and other groups influencesCompelling models such as in the media
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