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PSY 1101 Textbook Notes.docx

126 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY1101
Professor
A L L

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Psychology Ninth EditionPrologue The Story of PsychologyoBegan in ancient Greece with philosophers Aristotle asking questions about our human behavioroFirst psychological experiment was performed in 1879 by Wilhelm Wundt and his two graduate students Their experiment was tracking the time delay between a ball hitting the floor and the subject becoming consciously aware of the balls impactoStructuralism An early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the structural elements of the mind introspection is looking into yourselfThis method was started by Edward Bradford oFunctionalism A school of psychology that focused on how our mental and behavioral processes functioned how they enable us to adapt survive and flourishWilliam James was a famous psychologist who studied the mind and its functions oBehaviorismThe view that psychology should be an objective science that studies behavior without reference to mental scienceJohn Watson and BF Skinner were both of this opinion they did not feel that emotions or feelings could be studied oHumanistic PsychologyEmphasized the growth potential of healthy people and the individuals potential for personal growthPioneered by Carl Rogers and Abraham MaslowoCognitive Neuroscience Study of brain activity ie perception memory language and thinkingoPsychologyStudy of behavior and mental processes David MyersContemporary Psychology oNatureNurture IssueThe longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviorsTodays science sees traits arising from the interaction of nature and nurture oNatural SelectionThe principle that among the range of inherited trait variations those contribution to the reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations oLevels of AnalysisThe differing complementary views that used to understand a problem disease poor livelihood behavior mental process etcThree levels Biological psychological and socialculturalThe biopsychosocial approach attempts to use all three of these levelsPsychologys Current Perspectives oNeuroscience How the body and brain enable emotions memories and sensory experiencesoEvolutionary How the natural selection of traits promoted the survival of genes oBehavioral genetics How much our genesenvironment impact our individual differencesoPsychodynamic How behavior springs from unconscious drives and conflictsoBehavioralHow we learn observable responses oCognitive How we encode process store and retrieve information oSocial Cultural How behavior and thinking vary across situations and cultures Psychologies subfields oBasic ResearchPure research that aims to increase the scientific knowledge baseoApplied ResearchScientific study that aims to solve practical problems oCounseling PsychologyA branch of psychology that assists people with problems in living and in achieving a better well being oClinical PsychologyA branch of psychology that studiesassesses and treats people with psychological disorders oPsychiatry A branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders practiced by physicians who may provide drugs Thinking Critically With Psychological Science The Need for Psychological Science
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