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PSY1101 Final Exam Review.docx

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PSY 1101 Final Exam ReviewPROLOGUE The Story of PsychologyHistorical aspects Prologue Aristotle The mind and body are connected The contents of the mind must be learned We are all born with mind that is a blank slateSocratesPlato Mind is separate from the body Duality The mindcontinues after death Human knowledge is built from within Some ideas are inborn ie innateRen Descartes The mind and body are separate The mind is not subject to the laws of physical universe Francis Bacon Founder of modern science Science should be based on experience and experiments John Locke The mind at birth is a blank slate The mind acts only on what enters through the senses HistoryW WundtE Titchener Introspection Structuralism Attempted to discover the basic structures of the mindconsciousness analogous to the basic elements in Chemistry Freud Role of the unconscious in determining our behaviour James FunctionalismPragmatism What is the function of our thoughts and emotions WatsonSkinner Tenets of behaviourism Study only what is directly observable Dismissed introspection and psychoanalysis as unscientificCHAPTER 1 Thinking Critically with Psychological ScienceThinking Critically Chapter 1Logic Aristotle and Plato maintained that all knowledge can be logically deducedScience and empiricism experimental manipulationMany critics of Psychology as a science claim it need not be studied at all Psychology is mainly common sense But common sense intuition can lead us to errorHindsight bias the tendency to believe after learning an outcome that one would have foreseen itIt is common sense Thus critics of Psychology claim it is guilty of the hindsight bias The following are common public sayings yet one contradicts the otheroIt is good to express an emotion to reduce its intensityoExpressing an emotion only amplifies itCritical thinking common senseOverconfidence We tend to overestimate what we actually know We overestimate our abilities False consensus effect The tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and attitudes The belief that most people agree with our opinionsbeliefslikesIllusionary Correlation A perceived nonexistent correlation Helps to explain superstition Getting chilled is associated with getting coldsPsychologists study human behaviour and mental eventsClaims about behaviour need to be supported by evidenceClaims about the mind need to be supported by evidencePsychologists do not accept beliefs opinionsEthics of researchAll studies carried out in Psychology must be approved by an Ethics board that assuresoThe participant is informed about what they will be doing in the studyoThe participant is protected from risk and harmoData collected are confidential only the researchers have access to them and anonymous the participant is not identifiedoThe purpose of the research is explained either before or after the study Scientific ProcedureObservation theory hypotheses operational definition independent variable dependent variableWhat is theory What is an hypothesis prediction based on theoryRandom sampling Every member of the population has an equal chance of being selected for the studyIdentify independent and dependent variablesoSkinner varies the type of reinforcer and observes their effects on the rate of respondingoThe effects of parenting on feelings of depressionExperimental designsocontrol vs experimental groups Need for random assignmentoprepost oplacebo vs treatment double blindStatistical measuresMeasures of central tendency mean median mode2 4 5 5 7 9 9 9 10What is mean median modeMeasures of variancerange variance standard deviationRange maxminStandard Deviation SD square root of varianceIn a normal curve about 68 of scores occur within 1 SD 95 within 2 SD and 998 within 3 SD of the mean Normal Curve
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