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Psychology 1102 Final Exam Review.docx

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Rosalinde Klempan

Psychology Final Exam Review Chapter 4 – Nature, Nurture and Human Diversity 1. Behavior genetics, p. 134 - the study of the relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influences on behavior. 2. Environment, p. 134- every nongenetic influence, from prenatal nutrition to the people and things around us. 3. Chromosomes, p. 134- threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes. 4. DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), p. 134 - a complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes. 5. Genes, p. 134 - the biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes; a segment of DNA capable of synthesizing a protein. Environmental events “turn on” genes, rather like hot water enabling a tea bag to express its flavor. When turned on, genes provide the code for creating protein molecules, the building blocks of physical development. 6. Genome, p. 135 - the complete instructions for making an organism, consisting of all the genetic material in that organism’s chromosomes. 7. Identical twins, p. 135 - twins who develop from a single fertilized egg that splits in two, creating two genetically identical organisms. • Although identical twins have the same genes, they don’t always have the same number of copies of those genes. That may help explain why one twin may be more at risk for certain illnesses (Bruder et al., 2008). Most identical twins share a placenta during prenatal development, but one of every three sets has two separate placentas. One twin’s placenta may provide slightly better nourishment, which may contribute to identical twin differences (Davis et al., 1995; Phelps et al., 1997; Sokoll et al., 1995). 8. Fraternal twins, p. 135 - twins who develop from separate fertilized eggs. Theyare genetically no closer than brothers and sisters, but they share a fetal environment. Shared genes can translate into shared experiences. A person whose identical twin has Alzheimer’s disease, for example, has a 60 percent risk of getting the disease; if the affected twin is fraternal, the risk is only 30 percent (Plomin et al., 1997). Are identical twins, being genetic clones of one another, also behaviorally more similar than fraternal twins? Studies of thousands of twin pairs in Sweden, Finland, and Australia provide a consistent answer: On both extraversion (outgoingness) and neuroticism (emotional instability), identical twins are much more similar than fraternal twins. 9. Temperament, p. 139 - a person’s characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity. 10. Heritability, p. 140 - the proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes. The heritability of a trait may vary, depending on the range of populations and environments studied. 11. Interaction, p. 142- the interplay that occurs when the effect of one factor (such as environment) depends on another factor (such as heredity). 12. Molecular genetics, p. 142 - the subfield of biology that studies the molecular structure and function of genes. 13. Evolutionary psychology, p. 143 - the study of the evolution of behavior and the mind, using principles of natural selection. 14. Natural selection, p. 143 - the principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those that lead to increased reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations. 15. Mutation, p. 144- a random error in gene replication that leads to a change. 16. Gender, p. 146- in psychology, the biologically and socially influenced characteristics by which people define male and female. 17. Culture, p. 153- the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values, and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next. 18. Norm, p. 154- an understood rule for accepted and expected behavior. Norms prescribe “proper” behavior. 19. Personal space, p. 154 - the buffer zone we like to maintain around our bodies. 20. Individualism, p. 155 - giving priority to one’s own goals over group goals and defining one’s identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group identifications. 21. Collectivism, p. 155 - giving priority to goals of one’s group (often one’s extended family or work group) and defining one’s identity accordingly. 22. Aggression, p. 160- physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt someone. 23. X chromosome, p. 162- the sex chromosome found in both men and women. Females have two X chromosomes; males have one. An X chromosome from each parent produces a female child. 24. Y chromosome, p. 162 - the sex chromosome found only in males. When paired with an X chromosome from the mother, it produces a male child. 25. Testosterone, p. 162- the most important of the male sex hormones. Both males and females have it, but the additional testosterone in males stimulates the growth of the male sex organs in the fetus and the development of the male sex characteristics during puberty. 26. Role, p. 164- a set of expectations (norms) about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave. 27. Gender role, p. 164- a set of expected behaviors for males or for females. 28. Gender identity, p. 165 - our sense of being male or female. 29. Gender typing, p. 165social learning theory, p. 165 - the acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role. 30. Social learning theory, p.165 - the theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished. Chapter 5 – Developing Through the Lifespan 1. Developmental Psychology (p.173): a branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span. 2. Zygote (p.175): the fertilized egg; it enters a 2-week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo. 3. Embryo (p.175): the developing human organism from about 2 weeks after fertilization through the second month. 4. Fetus (p.175): the developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth. 5. Teratogens (p.175): agents such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm 6. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) (p.175): physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by a pregnant woman’s drinking. In severe cases, symptoms include noticeable facial misproportions. 7. Habituation (p.175): decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation. As infants gain familiarity with repeated exposure to a visual stimulus, their interest wanes and they look away sooner. 8. Maturation (p.177): biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience. 9. Cognition (p.179): all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating. 10. Schema (p.181): a concept or framework that organizes and interprets information. 11. Assimilation (p.181): interpreting our new experience in terms of our existing schemas. 12. Accommodation (p.181): adapting our current understanding (schemas) to incorporate new information. 13. Sensorimotor Stage (p.181): in Piaget’s theory, the stage (from birth to about 2 years of age) during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities. 14. Object Permanence (p.181): the awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived. 15. Preoperational Stage (p.183): in Piaget’s theory, the stage (from about 2 to 7 years of age) during which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic. 16. Conservation (p.183): the principle (which Piaget believed to be a part of concrete operational reasoning) that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in forms of objects. 17. Egocentrism (p.183): in Piaget’s theory, the preoperational child’s difficulty taking another’s point of view. 18. Theory of Mind (p.185): people’s ideas about their own and other’s mental states- about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts, and the behaviors these might predict. 19. Concrete Operational Stage (p.185): in Piaget’s theory, the stage of cognitive development (from about 6 or 7 to 11 years of age) during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events. 20. Formal Operational Stage (p.185): in Piaget’s theory, the stage of cognitive development (normally beginning about age 12) during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts. 21. Autism (p.187): a disorder that appears in childhood and is marked by deficient communication, social interaction, and understanding of others’ states of mind. 22. Stranger Anxiety (p.188): a newly emerging ability to evaluate people as unfamiliar and possibly threatening helps protect babies 8 months and older. 23. Attachment (p.188): an emotional tie with another person; shown in young children by there seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress on separation. 24. Critical Period (p.189): an optimal period shortly after birth when an organism’s exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces proper development. 25. Imprinting (p.189): the process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life. 26. Basic Trust (p.191): according to Erik Erikson, a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy; said to be formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive caregivers. 27. Self-Concept (p.195): our understanding and evaluation of who we are. 28. Adolescence (p.196): the transition period from childhood to adulthood, extending from puberty to independence. 29. Puberty (p.196): the period of sexual maturation, during which a person becomes capable of reproducing. 30. Primary Sex Characteristics (p.196): the body structures (ovaries, testes, and external genitalia) that make sexual reproduction possible. 31. Secondary Sex Characteristics (p.196): non-reproductive sexual characteristics, such as female breasts and hips, male voice quality, and body hair. 32. Menarche (p.198): the first menstrual period. 33. Identity (p.203): our sense of self; according to Erikson, the adolescent’s task to solidify a sense of self by testing and integrating various roles. 34. Social Identity (p.203): the “we” aspect of our self-concept; the part of our answer to “Who am I?” that comes from our group memberships. 35. Intimacy (p.204): In Erikson’s theory, the ability to form close, loving relationships; a primary developmental task in late adolescence and early adulthood. 36. Emerging Adulthood (p.207): for some people in modern cultures, a period from the late teens to early twenties, bridging the gap between adolescent dependence and full independence and responsible adulthood. 37. Menopause (p.207): the time of natural cessation of menstruation; also refers to the biological changes a woman experiences as her ability to reproduce declines. 38. Cross-Sectional Study (p.215): a study in which people of different ages are compared with one another. 39. Longitudinal Study (p.215): research in which the same people are studied and retested over a long period. 40. Crystallized Intelligence (p.215): our accumulated knowledge and verbal skills; tends to increase with age. 41. Fluid Intelligence (p.215): our ability to reason speedily and abstractly; tends to decrease during late adulthood. 42. Social Clock (p.217): the culturally preferred timing of social events such as marriage, parenthood, and retirement. Chapter 10 – Intelligence 1. Intelligence Test (p.406): a method for assessing an individual’s mental aptitudes and comparing them with those of others, using numerical scores. 2. Intelligence (p.406): mental quality consisting of the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations. 3. General Intelligence (g) (p.406): a general intelligence factor that, according to Spearman and others, underlies specific mental abilities and is therefore measured by every task on an intelligence test. 4. Factor Analysis (p.406): a statistical procedure that identifies clusters of related items (called factors) on a test; used to identify different dimensions of performance that underlie a person’s total score. 5. Savant Syndrome (p.407): a condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skill, such as computing or drawing. 6. Emotional Intelligence (p.412): the ability to perceive, understand, manage, and use emotions. 7. Mental Age (p.416): a measure of intelligence test performance devised by Binet; the chronological age that most typically corresponds to a given level of performance. Thus a child who does as well as the average 8-year-old is said to have a mental age of 8. 8. Stanford-Binet (p.416): the widely used American revision (by Terman at Stanford University) of Binet’s original intelligence test. 9. Intelligence Quotient (IQ) (p.416): defined originally as the ratio of mental age (ma) to chronological age (ca) multiplied by 100 (thus, IQ = ma/ca x 100). On contemporary intelligence tests, the average performance for a given age is assigned a score of 100. 10. Achievement Test (p.418): a test designed to assess what a person has learned. 11. Aptitude Test (p.418): a test designed to predict a person’s future performance; aptitude is the capacity to learn. 12. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) (p.418): the WAIS is the most widely used intelligence test; contains verbal and performance (nonverbal) subtests. 13. Standardization (p.419): defining meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of the pretested group. 14. Normal Curve (p.419): the symmetrical bell-shaped curve that described the distributions of many physical and psychological attributes. Most scores fall near the average, and fewer and fewer scores lie near the extremes. 15. Reliability (p.421): the extent to which a test yields consistent results, as assessed by the consistency of scores on two halves of the test, or on retesting. 16. Validity (p.421): the extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to. (See also content validity and predictive validity) 17. Content Validity (p.421): the extent to which a test samples the behavior that is of interest. 18. Predictive Validity (p.421): the success with which a test predicts the behavior it is designed to predict; it is assessed by computing the correlation between test scores and the criterion behavior. (Also called criterion-related validity). 19. Mental Retardation (p.425): (also called intellectual disability), a condition of limited mental ability, indicated by an intelligence score of 70 or below and difficulty in adapting to the demands of life; varies from mild to profound. 20. Down Syndrome (p.425): a condition of retardation and associated physical disorders caused by an extra copy of chromosome 21 (a.k.a.trisomy 21). 21. Stereotype Threat (p.438): a self-confirming concern that one will be evaluated based on negative stereotype. Chapter 13 – Personality 1. Personality (p.553): An individual’s characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting. 2. Free Association (p.554): In psychoanalysis, a method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing. 3. Psychoanalysis (p.554): Freud’s theory of personality that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts; the techniques used in treating psychological disorders by seeking to expose and interpret unconscious tensions. 4. Unconscious (p.554): According to Freud, a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings and memories. According to contemporary psychologists, information processing of which we are unaware. 5. Id (p.555): Contains a reservoir of unconscious psychic energy that according to Freud, strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives. The id operates on the pleasure principle, demanding immediate gratification. 6. Ego (p.555): The largely conscious, “executive” part of psychology that, according to Freud, mediates among the demands of the id, superego, and reality. The ego operates on the reality principle, satisfying the id’s desires in ways that will realistically bring pleasure rather than pain. 7. Superego (p.555): The part of personality that, according to Freud, represents internationalized ideals and provides standards for judgement (the conscience) and for future aspirations. 8. Psychosexual Stages (p.556): the childhood stages of development (oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital) during which, according to Freud, the id’s pleasure-seeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones. 9. Oedipus Complex (p.556): According to Freud, a boy’s sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father. 10. Identification (p.556): The process by which, according to Freud, children incorporate their parent’s values into their developing superegos. 11. Fixation (p.556): According to Freud, a lingering focus of pleasure- seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage in which conflicts were unresolved. 12. Defense Mechanisms (p.557): In psychoanalytic theory, the ego’s protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality. 13. Repression (p.557): In psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness. 14. Regression (p.557): Psychoanalytic defense mechanism in which an individual faced with anxiety retreats to a more infantile psychosexual stage, where some psychic energy remains fixated. 15. Reaction Formation (p.557): Psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which the ego unconsciously switches unacceptable impulses into their opposites. Thus, people may express feelings that are the opposite of their anxiety-arousing unconscious feelings. 16. Projection (p.557): Psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which people disguise their own threatening impulses by attributing them to others. 17. Rationalization (p.557): Defense mechanism that offers self-justifying explanations in place of the real, more threatening, unconscious reasons for one’s actions. 18. Displacement (p.558): Psychoanalytic defense mechanism that shifts sexual or aggressive impulses toward a more acceptable or less threatening object or person, as when redirecting anger toward a safer outlet. 19. Denial (p.558): Defense mechanism by which people refuse to believe or even to perceive painful realities. 20. Collective Unconscious (p.558): Carl Jung’s concept of a shared, inherited reservoir of memory traces from our species’ history. 21. Projective Test (p.558): A personality test, such as the Rorschach or TAT, that provides ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger projection of one’s inner dynamics. 22. Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) (p.558): A projective test in which people express their inner feelings and interests through the stories they make up about ambiguous scenes. 23. Rorschach Inkblot Test (p.560): The most widely used projective test, a set of 10 inkblots, designed by Hermann Rorschach; seeks to identify people’s inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots. 24. Terror-Management Theory (p.562): A theory of death-related anxiety; explores people’s emotional and behavioral responses to reminders of their impending death. 25. Self-Actualization (p. 564): According to Maslow, one of the ultimate psychological needs that arises after basic physical and psychological needs are met and self-esteem is achieved; the motivation to fulfill one’s potential. 26. Unconditional Positive Regard (p.564): According to Rogers, an attitude of total acceptance toward another person. 27. Self-Concept (p. 566): All our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in answer to the question, “Who am I?” 28. Trait (p.568): A characteristic pattern of behavior or a disposition to feel and act, as assessed by self-report inventories and peer reports. 29. Personality Inventory (p.570): A questionnaire (often with true-false or agree-disagree items) on which people respond to items designed to gauge a wide range of feelings and behaviors; used to assess selected personality traits. 30. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) (p.570): The mos
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