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PSY1102 - FINAL EXAM Notes

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PSY1102EXAM Study NotesCHAPTER 4Nature vs NurtureNatureGenesoThe basic unit of heredity oGenome30000 genes 9999 genetics similarity between all humansoDifferences are found in the 001 where 95 are differences within racesoRace does not exist biologicallyEvolutionary PsychologyoBased upon universal common behaviours and adaptationoInfluenced by Darwins Theory of EvolutionSurvival for transmission of genes to the futureNatural selection survival of the fittestoApplicationSexualityMen have higher reproductive capacities than women and are wired for recreational sex while women are wired for relational sexoCritiqueThree main pointsEP starts with a problem and works backwards to propose an explanationFit changes with timeSocial or cultural expectations can bend the gendersBehaviour GeneticsoTwin studies to examine how temperament psychology and emotion are related to geneticsIdentical twinsmonozygotic shared placenta one egg 100 commonFraternal twinsdizygotic different placenta 2 eggsperm 50 similarSiblings Parentschildren50 commonGrandparentsgrandchildren25 commonCousins125 commonoPersonalitytemperament is genetically linkedExtravertoutgoing overly expressive Introvertshy reservedTemperament StudiesoTemperament is the typical emotional way you react to lifeoBabies are born with temperamentEasy babies 40calmSlowtowarm babies 15shy guarded1Difficult babies 10fussyCombination 35oTemperaments endure throughout the life but nurture can change it slightlyHeritabilityoDegree to which differences between individuals in a group are due to geneticsoIf nurture is similar differences due to heritability will be highoIf nurture is different differences due to heritability will be lowerNatureNurture InteractionoDNA as well as pattern of activation of genes is transferred to offspringoSome genes may be turned on by nurtureMolecular GeneticsoIdentify the genes responsible for certain behaviours via studying DNANurturePrenatal DevelopmentoConditions inside the wombnurtureExperience and Brain DevelopmentoNurture is essential for proper brain developmentoBrain must be stimulated in order to develop properlyoBrain changes throughout lifedoes not stop developing FamilyPeer InfluenceoFamily nurtureonly 10 reason for developing temperamentDetermine peer influence location give adviceParentchild relationships influence peerchild relationshipsPolitical and religious views are linked to nurtureoPeer nurture same age maturitymuch more importantAffect decisions towards risktaking behavioursCultureoBehaviours attitude idea values traditions shared by a group of people and is transmitted through generationsoHumans are genetically inclined to have a backbone cultureoPreservation of innovation through mastery of languageoVaries across locations and groupsoNormrules for accepted and expected behaviouroPersonal spacebuffer zone around bodies larger in NABritish smaller in French Latins Arabs2oAsians have a more relaxed pace of lifeoIndividualismfocus on ones own identity and goals NA Eur AusoCollectivismfocus on collective goals shared practices Family selfCHAPTER 5Developing Through the Life SpanDevelopmental PsychologyStudy of how we changedevelop throughout life5 major questionsoNature vs NurtureoContinuity vs StagesoStability vs Change Characteristics always constantoCritical Periods Do certain things need to happen at certain timesoChanges in temperamentBiological DevelopmentConception occurs when egg meets spermoOver 200 million sperm are released 1000 produced per secondPrenatal Development Gestation PeriodoGirls are more viable than boysoThree main stagesst1Germinal stage a day after sperm reaches eggtermed zygoteTravel down fallopian tube to attach to uteral wall50 diend2Embryonic stageWeek 38Once zygote attaches to the uteral wall it is termed the embryoPlacenta umbilical cord organs limbs formMost vulnerable stagerd3Fetal stageWeek 9birthOrgans and limbs continue to develop explosive growth of brainTermed the fetusFetus is viable at week 28Environmental InfluencesoTeratogensanything that causes a birth defectoDetrimental maternal factorsDrugs affect the babyex fetal alcohol syndrome once bornDiseasesLack of nutrition3
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