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Ap Exam Review.doc

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Rosalinde Klempan

The AP Psychology exam will be given on the afternoon of May 10With the busy If you schedules that everyone has I decided to try this as a way to review for the examwant the answers for the quizzes or the exam you can email a request to me and I will send them to youAlso if you have suggestions for things that I need to add to the review or specific questions you may just email me at cmeron4cpucoxnet HAP PSYCHOLOGY EXA The AP Examination in Psychology is approximately two hours long and includes both a 75minute multiplechoice section and a 45minute freeresponse sectionThe multiplechoice section accounts for twothirds of the students examination grade and the freeresponse section for the remaining onethirdMajor areas covered in the examination are as follows Methods Approaches History 79Biological Bases of Behavior 810 Sensation and Perception 79 States of Consciousness24 Learning and Memory79 Cognition 79 Motivation and Emotion 79 Developmental Psychology 79 Personality 79 Testing and Individual Differences 57 Abnormal Psychology 79 Treatment of Psychological Disorders 68Social Psychology 79 Practice Test1 ESSAY QUESTIONSHISTORY AND METHODSPsychology is the science of behavior and mental processes A Brief HistoryWilhelmWundtfoundedfirstresearchlabin1879birthofscientificpsychologyStructuralismstudiedconsciousnessintrospectionexaminingonesmindandwhatoneisthinkingandfeelingEdwardTitchenerFunctionalismlookatfunctionnotstructurestressadaptationtotheenvironmentWilliamJamesPrinciplesofPsychologyin1890JohnDeweyGestaltpsychologyfocusonthetotalityofperceptionMaxWertheimerPsychoanalysisSigmundFreudfocusonroleofunconsciousconflictstheprocessofraisingtheseconflictstoalevelofawarenessisthegoalofpsychoanalysisCurrent Views of PsychologyNeurobiologyBehaviorviewedintermsofbiologicalresponsesBehaviorismBehaviorviewedasaproductoflearnedresponsesHumanismBehaviorviewedasareflectionofinternalgrowthFreewillselfactualizationCarlRogersclientcenteredtherapyPsychodynamicBehaviorviewedasareflectionofunconsciousaggressiveandsexualimpulsesCognitiveBehaviorviewedasaproductofvariousinternalsentencesorthoughtsPsychologySocioculturalBehaviorviewedasstronglyinfluencedbytherulesandexpectations of specific social groups or cultures 2TERMS AND DEFINITIONS Psychology the scientific study of the behavior of living things4 goals describe understand predict and controltheorygeneral framework for scientific study smaller aspects can be testedCharles Darwintheories led to comparative psychology inspired early functionalistsWilhelm Wundt father of psychology first scientific labIntrospection the process of looking into yourself and describing what is thereStructuralism the first theoretical school in psychology stated that all complex substances could be separated and analyzed into component elementsSigmund Freud psychodynamic approach emphasis on the unconsciousWilliam James wrote Principles of Psychology a functionalistcoined the phrasestream of consciousnessFunctionalistasked what the mind does and why believed that all behavior and mental processes help organisms to adat to a changing environmentJohn B Watson behaviorist Little AlbertGestalt psychology emphasized the organizational processes in behavior rather than the content of behavior the whole is greater than the sum of its partsEclecticismthe process of making your own system by borrowing from two or more other systemsNeurobiological approach medical viewing behavior as the result of nervous system functions and biologyBehavioral approach view behavior as the product of learning and associationsB F Skinner behaviorist operant conditioningHumanistic approach believe people are basically good and capable of helping themselvesCarl Rogers a humanistPsychoanalysis a system of viewing the individual as the product of unconscious forcesCognitive approach emphasizing how humans use mental processes to handle problems or develop certain personality characteristics Sociocultural approachbehavior viewed as strongly influenced by the rules and expectations of specific social groups or culturesPlaceboa medicine with no active ingredientsDoubleblind study neither participants or researchers know who is in which group Hypothesis a statement of the results that the experimenter expectsSubjects people or animals in the experimentIndependent variable factor that the experimenter manipulates in a studyDependent variable the factor in a study that changes as a result of changes in the IV Confounding variable factors that may cause the DV to change other than the IVField experiments research that takes place outside the laboratoryExperimental group the group that gets the changes in the IVControl group this group is for comparison and doesnt get the changed IVSurvey method of research using questions on feelings opinions or behavior patternsSample a group that represents a larger groupNaturalistic observation research method that involves studying subjects without their being aware that they are being watched3
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