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PSY1102 Final.docx

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Chapter 4 Nature NurtureHuman DiversityGenes Biological Blueprint46 chromosomes23 pairs of 23 carry genetic information in for of DNA moleculesGene complexes a number of genes working together to make a final product or create change ex ObesityNucleotides biochemical building blocks alphabet of life that determine what a gene cancannot doChromosomesbooks genes words nucleotideslettersHuman Genome every human on earth is 9999 genetically similar differences within a race is 95race does not exist biologically only racehumanEvolutionary PsychologyDarwin survival of the fittest connections between organism and environmentBehaviourTrait that helped ancestors survive are what is displayed todayInterest in universal and common behaviour and capacity to adaptCritique it often starts with an effect like gender sexuality difference and works backwards to propose an explanation social consequences cultural expectations can bend genders sexes more alike than differentBehaviour GeneticsStudy of individual differences to determine the extent to which the differences of people are caused by genetics twin adoption family studiesMonozygotic Twins IdenticalDizygotic Twins Fraternal1 eggsperm same egg 100 genetically similar 2 eggs2 sperms sameopposite sex 50 similar 60 chance Alzheimers30 chance AlzheimersIdentical twins together or apart are more similar to each othergenetic component Together more similar than apartenvironment nurture componentGenetic component to personality adoption studies extraversion neuroticism Genetically similar 50 to parentssiblings 25 gparentschildren and 125 cousinsTemperament typical emotional way and intensity an individual reacts to lifeoEndures is stable across time But nurture remains important to modify itoEasy babies slowtowarm babies difficult babies and combination babiesHeritability degree to which differences between individuals are due to genetics degree to which differences within a group not personal2oh varies between 0 no influence to 1 all genetic influence 0440 genetics2 oWhen environment is similar his highoDifferences between race gender generationsnot heritableoInheriting genes doesnt mean it will express itselfaffect youtransfer the power of activation or deactivation for disease to our children by diet etcMolecular Genetics researchers want to identify genes In psy we want to know the causes important to know how to treat and help people Nurture ComponentPrenatal environmentbaby is vulnerable in the womb birth defectsoTwins different placentadiffer psychologically are aware of each other in wombExperience Facilitates Brain Development BOOKYou can be born with potential to be a genius but without stimulation this cannot be possibleoTaste sounds smells help the brain develop to its full potentialExperience changes the brain brain is plastic continues to change with experience for the betterworstex Old poor rats old rich ratsPeer Influence same agematurity levelGrowing interactionsgrowing influence spend 40 of time with peersSelection effect you are already interested in something so you gravitate towards people who share the same interestParents effect in 3 ways 1 Lifestyle choices 2 Affect personal relationship 3 AdviceCulture beh ideas attitudes values traditions shared by a group of people from one gen to the nextLanguagepreservation of innovation enables efficient divisions of labourVariationgroups have norms different amounts of personal space vary in pace of lifeexpressivenessIndividualism priorityown goals over other peoples goals define identitypersonal attributes not group identificationCollectivism priority goals of ones group familywork define identity accordingly
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