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PSY1102 Intro to Applied Psychology.doc

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PSY1102 Intro to Applied PsychologyJanuary 16 2012Chapter 4 Nature Nurture and Human Diversity Behavior Genetics Predicting Individual differences Study our differences and weigh the relative effects of heredity and environmentGenes Our codes for lifeoChromosomes containing DNA are situated in the nucleus of a celloSegments within DNA consist of genes that make proteins to determine our development Chromosome DNA GeneGenome The set of complete instructions for making an organism containing all the genes in that organism Thus the human genome makes us human and the genomeGenotypes Traits that result due to inheritance alonePhenotypes Traits that result from a combination of genes and environmental influencesAlleles Variations within a gene can arise from a mutationoAllelic VariationsHuntingdons Disease Dominantjust need one copy of gene50 change of developing if one parent has it Variant on huntingtine geneCystic FibrosisRecessivemutation on CFTR geneboth copies of gene need to defective to get CFHLA gene People with HLAB 1502 or HLAA 3101 are more susceptible to developing serious skin disorders ie SJS or ten with antiepileptic use ie CarbamazepineWomen with BRCA1 or BRCA2 genetic alleles have higher risk of developing breast cancer Twin and adoption studiesoStudying the effects of heredity and environment on two sets of twins identical and fraternal has come in handyoIdentical vs Fraternal Twin similarities and differencesGenetic influencesIdentical twins share a much higher risk of developing similar disease than fraternalIdentical twins more similar on scores of extraversion and neuroticismSocial influencesIdentical twin divorce rate much higher if one divorces compared to fraternal twinsIdentical twins treated more alike by parents than fraternal twinsoSeparated twinsA number of studies compared identical twins reared separately from birth or close thereafter and found numerous similaritiesPersonality intelligence abilities attitudes interests fears brains waves heart rate Critics of separated twin studies notes that such similarities can be found between strangers Researchers point out that differences between fraternal twins are greater than identical twins oBiological vs Adoptive RelativesAdoption studies as opposed to twin studies suggest that adoptee who may be biologically unrelated tend to be different from their adoptive parents and siblings Adoptive studies strongly point to the simple fact that biologically related children turn out to be different in a family So investigators ask Do siblings have differing experiencesDo siblings despite sharing half of their genes have different combinations of the other half of their genesDoes parenting have an effectoParentingParenting does have an effect on biologically related and unrelated childrenParenting influences childrens Attitudes values manners beliefs faith and politics Temperament and heredityoTemperament refers to a persons stable emotional reactivity and intensity Identical twins express similar temperaments suggesting heredity predisposes temperament HeritabilityoThe extent to which differences among people are attributable to genesoHeritability is influenced by environmentIf longterm environmental changes occur heritability over time may changeie Gene for height has not changed but nutritional influences have Nature and Nurture oSome human traits are fixed such as having two eyes However most psychological traits are liable to change with environmental experienceoGenes provide choices for organism to change its form or traits when environmental variable change Therefore genes are pliable or selfregulatingGeneenvironment interactionoGenes can influence traits which affect responses and environment can affect gene activity oA genetic predisposition that makes a child restless and hyperactive evokes an angry response from his parents A stressful environment can trigger genes to manufacture neurotransmitters leading to depressionoGenes and environment affect our traits individually but more important are their interactive effectsGenes and personalityThe effect of aging and cognitive function NaturenurtureEvolutionary psychology Understanding human natureoEvolutionary psychology studies why we as humans are alike In particular it studies the evolution of behavior and mind using principles of natural selectionoNatural selection is an evolutionary process through which adaptive traits are passed on to ongoing generations because these traits help animals survive and reproduceArtificial selectionoBiologists like Belyaev and Trut 1999 were able to artificially rear and domesticate wild foxes selecting them for friendly traits oAny trait that is favored naturally or artificially spreads to future generations Human traitsoA number of human traits have been identified as a result of pressures afforded by natural selectionWhy do infants fear strangers when they become mobileWhy do people fear spiders and snakes and not electricity and gunsHow are men and women alike How and why do mens and womens sexuality differHuman sexualityoGender differences in sexualityoMales and females to a large extent behave and think similarly Differences in sexes arise in regards to reproductive behaviors Natural selection and mating preferencesoNatural selection has caused males to send their genes into the future by mating with multiple females since males have lower costs involvedoHowever females select one mature and caring male because of the higher costs involved with pregnancy and nursingMating preferencesoMales look for youthful appearing females in order to pass their genes into the future Females on the other hand look for maturity dominance affluence and boldness in males Critiquing the evolutionary perspectiveoEvolutionary psychologists take a behavior and work backward to explain it in terms of natural
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