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Chapter 5 compiled.doc

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January 17 2013Lecture 4Chapter 5 developing through the life spanSix major sections I to VII Introduction Developmental psych Study of human development from the moment of conception to the moment of death Study of how we change physically emotionally behaviorally cognitively mentally etcDevelopment Factors of change that begin at the moment of conception and continue throughout life It involves positive change and growth and also decay and 5 major questions regarding developmentNaturenurtureContinuitystages if development is step by stepgradual steady in a continuos waylike growth of tree Stages means major transformations in one stage followed by plateau where nothing major happens and then another major changeex of caterpillar to butterfly Researchers think that development happens in both waysStabilitychange What habits behaviour we show in childhoodis it going to continue into adulthoodCritical periods Age range where certain experiences must take place or else development will not take properlyThe impact of early experience What happens to us in childhood abuseis it going to affect you in any way later onII Prenatal Development and the NewbornA ConceptionAs women we are born with eggs that mature later on We dont make themThis information may change in future Recent studies show that adult female rats can produce new ratsnot conclusive for humansMen produce sperms at puberty not born with and continue throughout their life span Their is decline in sperm production with agingConception happens when body of healthy of sexually active female releases eggengages sexually with healthy mannot using contraption Over 2 million sperms released only few hundreds make to egg The rest die Sperms release enzyme to eat the coating on egg and penetrates the coating of egg Once the sperm penetrates the egg makes sure that no other sperm makes it their Egg has fingerlike projectionstail falls so that it does not damage or hurt egg Sperm and egg fusefertilizationzygoteprenatal life begins 15000 eggs will matureOver 200000000 sperms released less than half will make it past first two weeks of pregnancyB Prenatal DevelopmentB1 The 3 stages of Prenatal DevelopmentGestation period Duration of pregnancy from conception till birth It is divided into three stagesThe Germinal stage first The baby in this stage is called zygote This stage is about 10 days to 2 weeks The zygote multiplies and divides Once the number of cells reach 100 they begin to differentiate in structure and functions Later some cells are used in muscle neurons etcThe zygote travels from Fallopian tubes to the uterusless than half of zygotes will make this journey Its mainly male zygotes that do not make itThe zygote will attach itself to the uterian wall with this attachmentgerminal stage is over and new one beginsThe Embryonic stagesecond stage Baby is called embryo lasts for week 3 to 8 weeks inclusive The Placenta is formed It provides the baby with oxygen nutrition protection elimination of waste etc The Nervous system begins to form and develop All major organs will form and developlimbs hands feet will form and development Stage for growth and developmentThe Fetal Stage third stage The technical term for baby is fetus Its lasts from week 9 to end of pregnancy Further maturation and development takes place Bones start to solidify muscles become strongerBrain becomes to matureit makes 250 neurons per minute Based on human and animal studies fetuses in the womb can learn B2 Environmental Influences Baby is protected in womb yet many factors can influence its growthTeratology Field where birth defects are studiedTeratogens Anything that causes birth defectsThe Effects of birth defect depend onDose Higher the dose higher the risk the more extensive the defectTime of Exposure At what stage was the baby exposed to teratogens The defect can be major or minor Embryo is most vulnerable Genetic Susceptibility some babies are more influenced by teratogens than others Gender means to make a difference Baby boys are more vulnerable to teratogens than girls Most spontaneous abortion are of boys More show physical defects due to teratogen and also problems in learning abilities than girlsMaternal Factors 1 Prescription and noprescription drugs Ex Drug thalidomide taken by mom resulted in deformed babies Another example is drug AccutanePsychoactive drugs cocaine majorly affect the babies Ex Alcohol FAS it kills
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