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PSY1102DNature Nurture and human diversityIIntroduction nature is genes nurture is everything else other than genes culture religion you were exposed to siblings the environment in which you were raised Who we are is the result of both nature and nurture contributing together There is an interaction between nature and nurture II The nature componentaGenes Our biological blueprint Trillions of cells 46 chromosomes or 23 pairs in each except eggs and sperm They carry information in the form of DNA molecule DNA is made up of genes they are a segment of DNA and they are the basic unit of heredity They carry the instructions that give an organism its characteristics and its structures Sometimes one single gene is responsible for a trait or characteristic ie A difference in height can be due to one single gene Sometimes a number of genes can work together to produce a disease or trait gene complexes ie ObesityGenes are made up of nucleotides which are biochemical building blocksA adenine G guanine T thymine C cytosineAT and GCNucleotides are known as the alphabet of lifeis it the sequence of nucleotides that will determine what a gene does and does not do Chromosomesbooks geneswords and nucleotidesletters Human genomewe have roughly 30000 genes Every human being on earth is 9999 genetically similar Repartition of the 001 difference5 is differences among races 93 differences within a race Biologically in terms of genes and DNA race does not existrace is a social construct created by human and the only race is the human race Standards concepts of race ought to be abandoned We share 9598 with chimpanzees and 92 with mice we share 50 of our DNA with bananas 44 with fruit flies and 30 with a daisybEvolutionary psychologyB1 EP is the newest perspective in psychology and heavily influenced by the theory of evolution of Darwin It takes its principles and applies them to psychology One of the ideas according to Darwinthe main goal of every organism is to survive and to transmit its genes into the future Even though that is the main goal many organisms die out because of natural selection so that only the fittest will survive When there is a good fit between the characteristics and the demands of the environment it lives in it is fit to survive Any behaviour or trait or emotion that helped our ancestors survive and transmit their genes into the future are adapted behaviours all human beings display today EP explains universal and common behaviours our adaptations Q You have 4 grandparents which one of them is going to put more time and more energy into you B2 According to surveys men tend to think more about sex tend to initiate masturbate andtend to interpret a friendly gesture or smile as a calling Men are more willing to commit sacrifices for sex and are more willing to conduct in recreational sex Clark and Hatfield study 1978sent out average looking woman onto a campus telling her to approach attractive man asking them to bed her They all agreed The women on the other hand were offended and proceeded to yell at the man and say noAccording to EP both men and women have the same goal they both want to survive and transmit their genes EP explains that men and women use different strategies because of differences in reproductive capacity Women are according to EP going to hold on to relational sex Men according to EP are going to follow the strategy of recreational sex B3 Critique on EP Guaranteed to get one question from this section on the exam There are tribes living in a primitive world18 tribes believe in multiple partners for women The women having multiple partners are less likely to have miscarriages than women with one partner 80 of the children of the women who have multiple partners reach the age of 18 while only 64 of children of women with one partner reach that same age CBehaviour geneticsThey study individual differences and their main goal is to determine the extent to which differences between individuals are due to genetics C2 Twin studies monozygotic identical twins and dizygotic fraternal Rationale if a behaviour or trait disease has a genetic component to it then identical twins who are 100 genetically similar to each other should be more similar on that trait then fraternal twins who are only 50 genetically similar If one identical twin gets Alzheimers disease then theres a 60 chance that the other one will get it compared to fraternal twins where there would be a 30 chanceCriticism on studying twins separated at birthadoption agencies make sure that siblings are placed in similar households with similar families and environments On certain traits and characteristics identical twins whether theyre reared apart or together are more similar to each other than fraternal twins indicating that there is a genetic component to these traits etc Identical twins reared apart are less similar to each other than identical twins reared togetherC3 Adoption studies They share their genes with their biological parents and siblings but share their environment with their adopted parents There is a strong genetic component to personality C4 Family Studies Family members are more similar to each other than strangers are to each other Within a family there are different degrees of genetic similarities some family members are more similar to each other than other family members Family members who are more similar to each other genetically
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