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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY1102
Professor
All Professors
Semester
Fall

Description
PSY1102Nature and Nurture of BehaviourthJanuary 7 2012The Nature and Nurture of Behaviour Ch4NatureNurture ControversyDoes nature heredity genetics or nurture environmentexperience guide developmentthJohn Locke 17 centurySaw mind at birth as blank slate tabula rasaNurture was importantWas an environmentalistCharles Darwin 1859Theory of evolutionNature was importantSeesaw effect one side said nature was important other said nurture Darwin shifted the focus from nurture to natureCreated a shift of an idea of who we are in the worldImportant to make note of in Darwins theories 1 Survival of the fittest 2 Man descended from common ancestorBehaviourism MovementWatson FatherFounder and Skinner Operant conditioning responsible for developing a theory on operant conditioning were key playersPut emphasis back on nurtureAll behaviourists learn and behaviour can be changed by changing the environment environment is the critical thingInteractionism Dominant view of todayAn interaction between heredity and environment guides developmentie Language development what language you speak depends on your environmentGenesDNA Deoxyribonucleic AcidMolecule containing genetic information in templates for the production of proteinsMolecule looks like double helixChromosomesStructures composed of DNA moleculesChain of DNAHumans inherit 23 chromosomes from each parent get 23 pairs or 46 in totalGenesSegments of DNAA unit of DNA in a chromosomeEach gene is responsible for synthesizing a specific proteinThe CellContains nucleus and cytoplasm bounded by cell membraneChromosomes and genes located in nucleusNucleus contains the genetic code blueprint for cell development function and divisionThe Human Genome Project The GenomeComplete genetic instructions for making an organismInitially thought to be completed in 1520 years but got completed a lot quicker due to technological advancesThe Double Helix of DNAFound by Watson and Crick 1953Contains 4 nucleotide basesBases are adenine A thymine T guanine G and cytosine PSY1102Nature and Nurture of BehaviourOnly pair up with AT and GCHuman Genome ProjectSequencing all three billion pairs of nucleotides for humansEvolutionary PsychologyStudy of the evolution of behavioursUses principles of natural selection DarwinVariations of increasing survival changes are more likely to be passed on survival of the fittestMutationsAny change that can occur in a genetic codeErrors during DNA replicationMay cause cancer or diseaseAre the source of genetic diversityBehaviour GeneticsAn approachStudy of the influence of genes and environment on behaviourHow much behaviour variability is due toHeredityEnvironmentInteraction between bothNothing is completely determined by genes Twin StudiesMethod used by behaviour geneticistsCompare traits and behaviour similarities of types of twinsIdentical TwinsDevelop from a single fertilized egg egg divides in twoIdentical genesFraternal TwinsDevelop from 2 fertilized eggs separate fertilizationsShare on average 50 of genes as do siblingsTemperament StudiesMethod used by behaviour geneticists Study changessimilarities in temperament over developmental periods and in twin studiesTemperament Persons largely innate inherited style of responsiveness to external world Includes emotional reactivityNYLS Dimensions of TemperamentActivityRhythmicityApproachWithdrawalAdaptabilityIntensityThresholdMoodDistractibilityAttention SpanPersistenceMolecular GeneticsStudy of molecular structure and function of genesApplicationsRisk assessment genetic screeningGenetic engineeringPSY1102Nature and Nurture of BehaviourTo eliminate childhood diseases predisposition to diseases behavioursEnhance functioningSome Issues of ConcernHuman Genome ProjectingGenetic Engineering1 Genetic Discrimination Employment Insurance2 Shift from Nurture to NatureDirects societys attention away from responsibility for inequities and role of environment3 Reduction of Genetic DiversityRecessive traits and mutations important in evolution optionsRisk depleting genetic poolGender DefinitionsSex or GenderBiological maleness or femalenessGender IdentityOwn sense of being male or femaleGender RoleExpected behaviours in a culture about each sexGender TypingAcquiring the behaviours and characteristics expected and considered appropriate for each sex in a specific cultureOrigins of Gender TypingSocial Learning TheoryParental modeling and modeling from TV and books is observed and imitatedidentified withParental provision of rewards and punishments for gendertyped behaviour The Developing PersonCh4AgendaDevelopmental IssuesNatureNurtureContinuity StagesStabilty ChangeThe NewbornThe competent newbornPerceptionInfancy and ChildhoodBrain developmentMaturationCognitive developmentPiaget Social development Origins of attachment Familiarity Responsive parenting Child rearing practicesAdolescence Developing moralityKohlberg
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