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Applied Psychology Course Review.docx

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University of Ottawa

Applied Psychology Course ReviewProloguePsychology the scientific study of behaviour and mental processesStructuralism an early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the elemental structure of the human mind EDWARD BRADFORD TICHENERFunctionalism a school of psychology that focused on how mental and behavioural processes functionhow they enable the organism to adapt survive and flourish WILLIAM JAMES and MARY WHITON CALKINSHumanistic psychology historically significant perspective that emphasized the growth potential of healthy people used personalized methods to study personality in hopes of fostering personal growthSigmund Freud famed personality theorist and therapist whose controversial ideas influenced humanitys selfunderstandingMaragret Floy Washburn first woman to receive a psychology PhD Wrote the Animal MindJohn B Watson and Rosalie Rayner Little AlbertBF Skinner leading behaviourist who rejected introspection and studied how consequences shape behaviourNaturenurture issues the longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behavioursNatural Selection the principle that among the range of inherited trait variations those contributing to reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generationsCharles Darwin Argued natural selection shapes behaviour as well as bodiesLevels of Analysis the differing complementary views from biological to psychological to socialcultural for analysing any given phenomenonBiopsychosocial approach an integrate perspective that incorporates biological psychological and socialcultural levels of analysisBasic Research pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge baseApplied research scientific study that aims to solve practical problemsCounselling psychology a branch of psychology that assists people with problems in living often related to school work or marriage and in achieving greater wellbeing Clinical psychology a branch of psychology that studies assesses and treats people with psychological disordersPsychiatry a branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders practiced by physicians who sometimes provide medical for example drug treatments as well as psychological therapyChapter 3Environment every nongenetic influence from prenatal nutrition to the people and things around usBehaviour genetics the study of the relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influences on behaviourChromosomes threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genesDNA deoxyribonucleic acid a complex molecule containing genetic information that makes up the chromosomeGenes the biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes a segment of DNA capable of synthesizing a proteinGenome the complete instructions for making an organism consisting of all the genetic material in that organisms chromosomesTemperament a persons characteristic emotional reactivity and intensityHeritability the proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes The heritability of a trait may vary depending on the range of populations and environments studiedInteraction the effect of one factor such as environment depends on another factor such as heredityMolecular genetics the subfield of biology that studies the molecular structure and function of genesEvolutionary psychology the study of the evolution of behaviour and the mind using principles of natural selectionMutation a random error in gene replication that leads to a changeGender in psychology the biologically and socially influenced characteristics by which people define male and femaleX chromosome common to both male and female humansY chromosome only in malesChapter 4
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