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Midterm 2 - All Notes.docx

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Chapter 14 Health and StressFebruary 9 20101143 AM Intropsychological states cause physical reactions1prolonged stress together with unhealthy behaviours can increase risk for todays four leading 2causes of serious illness and deathheart disease cancer stroke and chronic lung diseaseto modify behavioural sources of illness psychologists created the interdisciplinary field of 3behavioural medicineCenters for Disease Control CDC claim that half of the deaths in the US are due to peoples 4behaviors smoking alcoholism unprotected sex insufficient exercise drugs and poor nutrition Stress and Illnessstresscombination of stressors and stress reactions not one or the other defines stress5onot just a stimulus or a responseocan be adaptivewe can run away from fearful or stressful threats and save our livesocan be maladaptiveprolonged stress causes chronic illnessesstress arises less from events themselves than from how we appraise them how we perceive 6thempositive effects7omobilize the immune system for fending off infections and healing woundsoarouses and motivates us to conquer problems aroused by a challengenegative8ostressors can threaten usex child abuse puts them at later risk of chronic diseasestress response system9oWalter Cannon 1929confirmed that the stress response is part of a unified mindbody systemoobservedextreme cold lack of oxygen emotionarousing incidents all trigger release of stress hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine from the adrenal glandssympathetic nervous system also increases heart rate and respiration diverts blood from digestion to the skeletal muscles dulls pain and releases sugar and fat from the bodys storesall prepares the body for the adaptive response Cannon called fight or flightopsychologists noted an additional stress response systemon orders from the cerebral cortex via hypothalamus and pituitary outer part of the adrenal glands secretes glucocorticoid stress hormones such as cortisolothe two systems work at different speeds norepinephrine being more immediategeneral adaptation syndrome10oSelye hoped to discover a new sex hormone injected rats with ovarian hormone extract and other fluids only to find they all had the same responseenlargement of adrenal cortex shrinkage of the thymus gland and bleeding ulcersthymus contains the diseasefighting white blood cellsoalso experimented with otherstresses such as electric shock surgical trauma immobilizing restraintodiscoveredbodys adaptive response to stress was very generalcalled it GASobserved three phasesphase 1experience alarm reaction due to the sudden activation of SNS heart rate zooms blood diverted to skeletal muscles feel faintness of shock ready to fight the challenge presented in phase 2phase 2resistance temperature BP respiration remain high sudden outpouring of hormonesphase 3exhaustion if persistent stress may eventually deplete bodys reserves more vulnerable to illness or even in extreme cases collapse and deathocriticsprolonged stress can produce physical deteriorationstudy of stressed women taking care of children with serious disorders displayed a symptom that is normal part of the aging processDNA pieces telomeres get too short cell can no longer divide and ultimately diesmost stressed women had cells that looked a decade older than their chronological agemay help explain why severe stress seems to age peopleoprolonged stressshrunken hippocampus the inner brain structure vital to laying down explicit memoriesstressful life events11ocatastrophesunpredictable largescale events nearly everyone appraises as threatening91123 of Americans surveyed by University of Michigan researchers said were having some trouble concentrating and sleeping28 increase in prescription for sleeping pills in the New York areain disasters wake rates of psychological disorders such as depression and anxiety rose an avg 17osignificant life changesleaving home death of a loved one loss of a job marriage divorcelife transitions and insecurities often keenly felt during young adulthoododaily hassleshappiness stems less from good fortune than from response to daily eventseveryday annoyancesrushhour traffic aggravating housemates long lines at store too many things to do email spam obnoxious cell phone talkersmay be the most significant sources of stressover time little stressors add up and take a toll on our health and wellbeinghypertension rates are high among residents of urban ghettos where stresses that accompany poverty unemployment solo parenting and overcrowding by racism are part of daily lifestress and the heart12oelevated BP is one factor that increase risk of coronary heart diseasethe closing of the vessels that nourish the heart muscleoFriedman and Rosenman 1974 devised two personality typesType A is a term used for competitive harddriving impatient verbally aggressive and angerprone peoplemore likely to develop heart problemsmore physiologically reactiveType B refers to easygoing relaxed peopleopessimistic adult men are twice as likely to develop heart disease over a 10year period Kubzanskyodepression also increases risks of death develop further heart problems Stress and Susceptibility to Diseasea psychophysical illness is any stressrelated physical illness such as hypertension or headaches13hypochondriasis is a misinterpretation of normal physical sensations as symptoms of disease14B lymphocytes fight bacterial infections15T lymphocytes attack cancer cells and viruses16microphages ingest foreign substances17
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