September 4, 2013
-Final exam-75% MCQ and 25% S.A
-Lot of memorization
6)All that is valuable in human society depends upon the opportunity for development accorded the
-over the last 25 years, now the focus are targeting geriatric part.
-Describe-what are the behaviour of changes
-Explain-cause of the changes
7) Why study children?
Most and quickest changes occur during childhood-physical, cognitive, social and emotional.
Early experiences affect later adult development.
Understanding more complex adult behaviour. Ex: Language-study how children learn to speak can
explain language in adulthood.
Ancient Greek and Rome- emphasized on education but engaged in inappropriate practice like
infanticide, slavery etc.
Children not protected by society but exploited when needed.
In Medieval (580-1800) :children should be protected.Around Renaissance period-orphanages set up
by rich people for orphaned children.
Modern age has laws for protection of children.
No psychologist in renaissance period.
Thomas Hobbes came up with radical ideas:
No soul, supernatural. Everything that exists is matter-the one you touch and feel.
Physical process is in the body.
Conscious thought done in brain.
Influenced John Locke
John Lock and Empiricism: sensory experiences allow us to learn, not born with them.
You don't think to choose(free will), but because of what you learnt.
4 important theorists: (don't memorize dates)
John Locke-influenced by materialism-all about experiences. Environmentalist-children are product of
their environment and upbringing. They are born as blank slate that gets filled as they grow (Tabula
rasa). Everything depends on what you write on the slate.
Jean Jacques Rousseau (JJ)- philosopher, tied to romanticism period of France. His ideas was that you are born with development and it unravels by exploring the world. Its a passive approach, opposite of
environmentalist. This idea is of nativism.
Not focusing on Von Herder in this class: Idea is to look at cultural context-important to preserve
culture (cultural relativism). Language is great example-kids learn it, use it and change it (active
Charles Darwin: Natural selection-survival of fittest. Natural selection explain the origin of certain
behaviour in evolutionary framework. It gave rise to historical theory of recapitulation-development of
individual mirrors that of the species. Baby crawls on four legs to two like ancestors. This theory is not
He took a baby biography for his child-that technique used to study child behaviour.
13)Pioneers of child psych
G.Stanley Hall: father of child psych. Established journals, university programs, founded the field of
development psychology. Theoretically, part of recapitulation-didn't go far.
James Mark Baldwin: Not a Canadian, but American.
John Watson: used introspection as a tool- think about you thinking and explain to others. He
didn't like this method. He was interested in observing animals to explain behaviour like Pavlov's dog.
Building associations form the blocks of behaviour. The theory was called behaviorism. His emphasize
was on observable behaviour-following the examples of hard sciences to make it reliable.
Arnold Gesell: Was a student of Watson. Interested in motor skills and the age where they learn the
skills. His idea is of age-related norms.
Sigmund Freud: focused on early childhood experiences to explain problems in adulthood. Theory of
psycho-sexual (pleasure) development. Children are born with innate sexual energy called libido.
There are various stages, where libido is focused on erogenous zones. If failed to stimulate these
regions-you become fixated on this stage. For ex-if hardcore smoker-did not get past the oral stage.
Phallic stage-sexually attracted to opposite sex parent-rise to Oedipus complex. Freud says to bury
anxiety-repression and identify with same sex parent. Freud's approach to therapy is still applied.
Developmental theorist: how you satisfy the stages will affect your behaviour. Interaction between
biological and environmental influence (interactionist perspective).
Erik Erikson: expanded Freud's stage past age 16-more interested in social and cultural influences.
How we navigate these influences and how it affects our behaviour. Know the general idea of stages-
you have to go through series of psycho-social stages and how you navigate will affect your outcome.
Each stage has a positive and negative stage.
Around 1,5-3-began to walk and explore environment, not relied on parents.As they navigate, they
drop things-feel shame. Autonomy is good (independence). Little bad is good as long you take more
Trust vs mistrust-little bit of mistrust is ok as long as you do trust your parents, baby sitter etc.
You go through all the stages depending on environment, also if outcomes is overall positive or
negative. Reflection question:
1) why does a child grow up to criminal?
-environment, modeling, peer influence (social).
2) will a child be noticeably different at 9 from the way he or she was at 6?
-why or why not?
--Yes, you think differently.
3) Accurate statement:
1) children are basically the same the world over or
2) The most interesting thing about children is how different each one is.
-second statement is more accurate: even there are same parent, env, exposure-still different.
Nature vs nurture-genes or env
Continuity vs discontinuity-smooth(continuous) or stage like (Freud and Erikson)
Normative vs idiographic (universal-or individual)-the question-how do most kids learn to share
(normative) and how come kids learn to talk at different ages (focus on individual). Not group versus
Stage theory has step-by step process, they are not related(discontinuous).
September 9, 2013