September 9, 2013
6) Horse could answer even when no owner was present.
7) horse used to stomp hoofs until the people look at him,as people were mostly focused on the hoofs to
watch the horse answer-so horse learnt to stomp until people looked up.
September 11, 2013
Review: learning principle-frequent "doorknob shock" makes me avoid door= Punishment operant
condition. Behaviour is decreasing, so no reinforcement.
Mom keeps picking up baby when he cries= Positive reinforcement for baby, negative for mom.
Student continues to make smart-ass comments in class after other students laugh=positive
reinforcement as behaviour is increasing.
St-Mary's debacle: "disgraceful" chant by student organizers as promotes non-consensual sex and
sex with minor. How will you explain this behaviour from following theoretical viewpoint:
Env/learning- being crazy during frosh week-observational learning or modeling
Sociocultural-why is it inappropriate from society's view point- socially encouraged to do what
the other person is doing. Society does not encourage this as a culture.
Evolutionary/biological: born to procreate, does not matter with whom.
Cognitive: the way we think desensitizes us to these issues.
Ask questions as psychologists.
Hypothesis-a guess that is tested.
Law-not test them, not questionable.
Objectivity and measure are necessary component of approach.
John Watson said to focus on what you see. They have to observable-when it starts and stop.
For ex-happiness can be observed by looking at how much a child smiles.
Quantitative (numeric) approach is used.
Studying 'niceness'- sharing, helping, smiling, give compliment (positive).
Whose definition of niceness is right? There is no aggreable definition, you have to able to
understand how its measured and should be replicated.
Go in natural env and record behaviour-for niceness-go at school yard. Have to objective so
different recorders get the same indicators (quantitative).
Structural obs-manipulate env. and record.
Minimize observer bias-don't give observer power to interpret behaviour. Observer influence-seeing some one recording behaviour would effect children.
Open ended-ask open ended question
Structured-list of questions to ask in a order
Limitation-relies on informant's knowledge-tricky with kids. Might not remember details.
They might not willing to show maladaptive behaviours.
Case studies- almost always one individual. Vary in twin and triplet study.
Clinical issue or unusual behavioral pattern.
Limitation-what it tells you about other people-hard if rare study.
Two components to correlation-degree and direction of relationship two variables
Positive (directly proportional-study and grade) or negative (inversely proportional-drink and
'r' value-can know how predictive it is. Knowing one in case of 0.99-tends to tell about the other
0.7-0.8 high in psychology.
Top left graph-positive as slope is going up-more sibling more social
Bottom left-more predictive as more tight around line
Top right-negative, not strong relation
Bottom right-negative, two variables are somehow linked-don't know how.
Test reading by giving reading test, can measure hours of Sesame street watching.
Can we say they influence each other-no because of correlation, but maybe -other direction is also
possible that children with high reading watch the show.