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Social Psych - Final

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Patrice Karn

Chapter 7 – Attitude Change Cognitive dissonance theory: model proposed by Leon Festinger, which states that awareness of consonant cognitions makes us feel good, whereas awareness of dissonant conditions makes us feel bad. Further, the unpleasant feelings produced by dissonant cognitions motivate us to do something to change our state. Consonant cognitions: beliefs that are consistent/compatible with one another Dissonant cognitions: beliefs that are inconsistent or logically discrepant with one another (ie. “I smoke” & “smoking causes cancer”) Induced compliance paradigm: research methodology used to test dissonance theory that arouses dissonance by getting people to engage in counter-attitudinal behaviour. In this paradigm, participants are induced to comply with an experimenter’s request that they behave in a way that is inconsistent with their attitude. Effort justification paradigm: research methodology used to test dissonance theory that arouses dissonance by getting people to invest time/energy to achieve a goal that may not be worthwhile (wasted effort/money) Free choice paradigm: research methodology used to test dissonance theory that arouses dissonance by getting people to choose between two or more alternatives (decision) Alternatives to Dissonance Theory: Self-perception theory: people logically infer their attitudes from their behaviour and the circumstances in which the behaviour occurred, without the occurrence of any arousal. Impression management theory: people in dissonant experiments want to appear consistent to the researcher and therefore lie about their attitudes: they falsely report attitudes that are relatively consistent with their behaviour in the study. Self-affirmation theory: recognition that their actions have been irrational or erroneous threatens people’s positive self-views, which causes unpleasant arousal; people can reduce this arousal by doing anything that reaffirms their value and worth as individuals. Hypocrisy paradigm: research methodology used to test dissonance theory that arouses dissonance by having people publically promote a socially desirable behaviour and then be made aware they have not always exhibited the behaviour themselves in the past. Cognitive response theory: model of persuasion that assumes that the impact of a message on attitudes depends on the thoughts evoked by the message. Hard sell: advertising strategy that relies on presenting information about the positive features of the product Heuristics persuasion: attitude change resulting from cues that indicate that the position advocated in a message is valid Soft sell: advertising strategy that relies on the use of images, emotions, symbols or values to promote a product Two Models of Persuasive Messages Systematic-heuristics model: theory of attitude change that distinguishes between two types of processing that can occur in response to a persuasive message: systematic processing and heuristic processing Elaboration likelihood model: theory of attitude change that specifies the conditions under which people will think carefully about the content of a persuasive message. It distinguishes between two types of processing: the central route to persuasion and the peripheral route to persuasion. (Central/Peripheral route to persuasion) Systematic processing: careful, deliberative analysis of the arguments in a message 1 Heuristic processing: superficial analysis of a message that focuses on cues indicating the validity or invalidity of the advocated position Central route to persuasion: persuasion that occurs when attitude change results from a careful analysis of the information in a persuasive communication Peripheral route to persuasion: persuasion that occurs when attitude change results from non-cognitive factors; it encompasses evaluative conditioning and mere exposure Peripheral cues: simple features or heuristics that are assumed to indicate that a message is valid Protection motivation theory: model that articulates how threatening messages can influence attitudes and behaviours (people change behaviour when they are motivated to protect themselves) Propaganda: persuasive attempt that is motivated by an ideology/set of values, and that is deliberately biased in its presentation of information Destructive cult: a rigidly structured group, led by a charismatic leader, that recruits and retains members using manipulative, deceptive techniques. Chapter 8 – Defining Conformity, Compliance & Obedience Conformity: any change in behaviour caused by another person/group Compliance: a change in behaviour that is requested by another person/group Obedience: a change in behaviour that is ordered by another person/group Research  People often go along with incorrect responses of others, even when reality is as plan as can be  People are remarkably susceptible to obedience to authority as a form of social infl. Why do we conform? Informational influence: influence from other people that is motivated by a desire to be correct and to obtain accurate info (trust other’s judgment) Normative influence: influence from other people that is motivated by a desire to gain reward or avoid punishment (want to be liked & avoid conflict) Social norm: a rule/guideline in a group/culture about what behaviours are proper/improper (ie. Driving on the right side of the road)  Autokinetic effect: in a darkened room, a stationary point of light will appear to move periodically o Sherif used this study to demonstrate the emergence of norms (adjust estimation according to other person, when together make a decision, will still stick to it on their own) o Transmission of norm from generation to generation can be modelled in the lab Asch’s “standard line experiment”  only 23% remained independent with their answer Crutchfield apparatus: a machine that consists of an electrical panel with several rows of lights; it will allow efficient study of conformity by stimulating the responses of numerous hypothetical participants.  Conformity is more likely when tasks were ambiguous (vague)  Conformity is also influenced by difficult tasks (+ difficult = + conform) o Less certainty 2  Independents have higher motivation to achieve & in leadership ability, less concerned on obtaining approval, less authoritarian, less conscientious  Age: elementary  grade 9 (conformity peak), declines as age  Conformity increases when group grew 13, but no further after  Conformity higher in collective countries  Women conform slightly more than men to (when answers are public) Foot-in-the-door technique: a strategy to increase compliance, based on the fact that agreement with a small request increases the likelihood of agreement with a subsequent smaller request. Door-in-the-face technique: a strategy to increase compliance, based on the fact that refusal of a large request increases the likelihood of agreement with a subsequent smaller request  Norm of reciprocity: the principle that we should give back I return any favours that are done for us (seen as compromise) Free-gift technique: strategy to increase compliance, based on the fact that giving someone a small gift increases the likelihood of agreement with subsequent requests Low-ball technique: strategy to increase compliance, in which something is offered at a given price, but then, after agreement, the price is heightened. (desire for constancy) Scarcity technique: a strategy to increase the attractiveness of a product by making it appear rare or temporary Liking technique: strategy to increase compliance, based on the fact that people are more likely to assist others they find appealing than others they do not find appealing Norm of obedience to authority: the principle that we should obey legitimate authorities Social Impact theory: a model that conceives of influence from other people as being the result of social forces acting on individuals, much as physical force scan affect an object Psychosocial law: principle in social impact theory that specifies the nature of the relation between size of group and its social influence. The principle predicts that as the number of social forces increases, overall social influence also increases, but at a declining rate. Chapter 9 – Stereotypes, Prejudice and Discrimination Prejudice: negative attitude toward members of a group, which is often very strongly held Discrimination: negative, harmful behaviour towards people based on their group membership Genocide: an attempt to systematically eliminate an ethnic group through banishment or murder Aversive racism: a “modern” kind of prejudice held by people who do not consider themselves prejudiced and who would find any accusation of being prejudice aversive, but who nevertheless harbour some negative beliefs and hostile feelings toward members of minority groups Self-fulfilling prophecy: process in which a perceiver’s expectancy about a target person influences the perceiver’s behaviour toward the target person in such a way as to elicit the expected actions from the target person Subliminal priming procedure: method of activating a schema or stereotype by flashing words or pictures very briefly on a computer screen in front of a participant 3 Implicit intergroup bias: distorted judgements about members of a group based on a stereotype, which can occur without the person’s awareness Meta-stereotype: a person’s beliefs about the stereotype that outgroup members hold concerning his or her own group Scapegoat theory: theory proposing that prejudice occurs because members of dominant groups use discrimination against members of weak target groups to vent their frustration and disappointment Realistic group conflict theory: theory proposing that when groups in society are perceived to be competing with one another for resources, intergroup hostility can be aroused, which leads to prejudice Integrated threat theory: theory proposing that prejudice results from four types of threats: realistic threats, symbolic threats, threats stemming from intergroup anxiety, and threats arising from negative threats Sexism: prejudice and discrimination directed against women because of their gender Neosexism: a subtle form of sexism, which includes beliefs that women are no longer disadvantaged and antagonism towards women’s demands for better treatment. Ambivalent sexism inventory: measure of stereotyped attitudes towards women, which is composed of two dimensions, one positive and on negative  Benevolent sexism: positive but paternalistic attitudes towards women  Hostile sexism: negative attitude towards women who violate the traditional stereotype of women Stereotype threat: pressure experienced by individuals who fear that if they perform poorly on a task, their performance will appear to confirm an unfavourable belief about their group Contact hypothesis: idea that exposure to members of an outgroup will produce more favourable attitudes toward that group Jigsaw classroom: method of teaching designed to foster positive interracial contact, which involves forming small, culturally diverse groups of students who are each given one part of the material to be learned Colour-blind approach: the hypothesis that to reduce prejudice , people should be encouraged to categorize other people as individuals rather than members of a group Multiculturalism: hypothesis that to reduce prejudice, different cultural groups within a society should each maintain their own identity while simultaneously respecting other groups Chapter 10 – Intergroup Relations & Group Dynamics Group dynamics: the social psychology study of groups and g
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